Tuesday, 5 December 2017

Engineering Journal: November issue 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-11, November 2017 with AD Publications

MATLAB-Based Stochastic Modeling Distribution Analysis of Commercial Fishery Length-Frequency Samples Taken From the Black Sea (Bulgaria)

Abstract Fish stock assessment procedure is initially based on the assumption that the frequencies in length/weight-frequency samples used for analysis of the stock status follow approximately the normal distribution. Many of the statistical procedures are based on specific distributional assumptions. The assumption of normality is very common in most classical statistical tests. In case that analysis of data implies techniques that make normality or some other distributional assumptions it is essential that this assumption is confirmed. If distributional assumption is proved, more powerful parametric techniques can be applied and if it is not justified an application of non-parametric or robust techniques may be required.

The present article aims to present MATLAB-based algorithm for commercial fisheries length-frequency samples distribution analysis of samples of Sprat and Anchovy caught in the Bulgarian waters in the Black sea. The statistical analysis uses engineering approaches in statistical data processing and the method used for analysis of sample frequencies distribution is chi-square normality or goodness of fit test. For the provision of this analysis, specific program is developed in MATLAB programming environment to support and confirm the assumption that length-frequency samples follow the normal distribution.

Keywords MATLAB, fisheries, normal distribution, length-frequency samples, stock assessment, chi-square normality test.

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Experimental Study of Hardness Measurement affected by a Cushion between Probe and PTF Pressure sensor

AbstractIn this paper, experimental study of hardness measurement process affected by a cushion between the probe and PTF (polymer thick film) pressure sensor was discussed. Hardness sensing for soft material has been one of the important problems in many fields such as foods industry and material science. One difficulty is how to measure the weak contacting force (0.1 to few N)stable with the small target deformation by low-cost force sensor such as PTF, and we found the result of the measurement stability depending on a cushion between the probe and PTF sensor. The result shows that (1) the output force value depends on the kind of cushion material (plastic, urethane, rubber, styrene elastomer, etc.), (2) the force value was affected by the sensor probe angle to the target material. This result would be useful to develop and study the hardness sensing process intending to reduce the target deformation.

KeywordsHardness measurement, soft material, cushion, PTF sensor.

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A novel study on the degradation of styphnic acid from water by cold plasma technology

Abstract Cold plasma technology exhibits many advantages in practical application. Due to these reasons the use of cold plasma technology for environmental treatment is receiving great attention. Here a novel study on the degradation of styphnic acid from water by cold plasma technology has been presented in detail, such as establishment of cold plasma reactor structure, determination of efficiency in degradation of styphnic acid by cold plasma radiation under different experimental conditions. The obtained results have shown that cold plasma might be used for degrade styphnic acid with high efficiency.

Keywords cold plasma, degradation, acid styphnic.

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Preparation of Oligo (Hexene-1-So-Indenes) and Investigation of Its Products as Additives to Oils

Abstract It has been carried out the copolymerization reactions of hexene-1 and indene with participation of BF3·O(C2H5)2 as the catalyst, the yield, the composition, the structure, the copolymerization constant and the average molecular weight values depending on cooligomerization condition have been determined. It has been shown that a location of links in the prepared cooligomers has a statistic character, but the blocks organized by molecules of hexene-1 may be included. Thermal stability of the synthesized cooligomers of hexene-1-indene has been investigated both individually and in fatty solution and it has been elucidated that an increase of a quantity of indene links in cooligomer composition leads to increase of thermal stability and an increase of the molecular weight decreases a thermal stability. An inclusion of the synthesized cooligomers in composition of M-6 oil as synthetic component increases a viscosity index value and gives it anticorrosion property.

Keywords hexene-1, indene, viscosity-temperature additives.

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Linear Quadratic Regulator Procedure and Symmetric Root Locus Relationship Analysis

Abstract The present paper is focused on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) synthesis. It is evident that the solution of the problem leads to finding a solution of symmetric root locus (SRL) problem. It is proven and analytical evidences is also presented that by using SRL synthesis method and further application of LQR method guarantees stability, minimum phase and gain margins of the closed loop system. The presented mathematical relationships are further proven with experimental investigation in MATLAB programming environment.

Keywords linear quadratic regulator, minimum phase system, Riccati equation, stability, state space, symmetric root locus.

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Validation and Integrity Mechanism for Web Application Security

AbstractRecently the world of web applications has witnessed a huge wave of attacks that caused a lot of web applications to get defaced and for a lot of businesses to lose financially and to lose the integrity between those companies and their users .since web hacking became common knowledge on the Internet and most of the defacements that happens on daily basis are going under a random way, the security specialists are trying to get new solutions that will help reduce the possibility of causing much damage to web applications even after the process of infiltration.

In this research an enhanced web application solution was proposed, which is a validation and integrity component that can be easily installed on any web application firewall (WAF), in order to help in solving the problem mentioned and raise the level of trust between user's and web application hosts/owners also restore the lost data caused by hacking attempts in simple and systematic way.

KeywordsAttack Prevention, Application Firewall, Cyber security, Firewall component, Internet Attacks.

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Adaptive State Observer Synthesis Based On Instrumental Variables Method

Abstract The present paper presents non-recurrent adaptive observation algorithm for SISO linear time-invariant discrete systems. The algorithm is based on the instrumental variables method and the adaptive state observer estimates the parameters, the initial and the current state vectors of discrete systems. The algorithm workability is proved by using simulation data in the MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords adaptive observation, discrete adaptive state observer, non-recurrent algorithm, initial and current state vector estimation.

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Design of Alternative Automatic Transmission for Electric Mopeds

Abstract The number of automobiles has seen an alarming rise in the recent years. In the year 2014, the number of road vehicles produced annually increased to 87.23 million vehicles from around 40 million in 2000. This shows that production has increased to more than twice the volume in only 14 years. This has also caused a rise in the pollution levels. Global CO2 levels are on the rise due to increased pollution, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Hence it is very important to reduce our dependency on gasoline driven vehicles. Electric vehicles are a good alternative to these. The advent of electric vehicles is marred by factors like unavailability of charging stations and most importantly not being able to match the performance parameters offered by gasoline driven vehicles. Hence a driveline setup has been designed to increase the performance parameters like gradeability and top speed of an electric moped to set it at par with the gasoline powered mopeds available on the market. In this report we will focus on the design considerations, working principle and the mechanism for the said driveline as well as the design calculations and the CAD model.

Keywords automatic, centrifugal clutch, drive train, electric vehicles, freewheel, mopeds, transmission.

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Ignition Behavior of Al/Fe2O3 Metastable Intermolecular Composites

Abstract Nano size Al/Fe2O3 thermite system has been reported in the literature as metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). Nano Al/nano Fe2O3 MIC has been prepared in various proportions by ultrasonic method. A comparative study on heat output and thermal behavior has been made on MIC using DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis), STA (Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer) and bomb calorimeter. It has been observed that nano-size ingredients produce more heat output compared to micron size ingredients. The ignition temperature also reduces in case of MIC indicating faster release of energy at lower temperature. The impact of ignition of nano-thermite has been reported based on ignition DTA experiment. DTA analysis also shows complete reaction in case of MIC where as micron size thermite showed an endothermic peak of Al melting indicating incomplete reaction. The PXRD (Powder X-Ray Diffraction) data of combustion products has been used to establish the combustion mechanism of MIC. The activation energy of MIC has been calculated using Kissinger, Ozawa and Starink kinetic equations and compared with literature reported values.

Keywords MIC, combustion kinetics, heat output, STA, DTA.

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Contact angle measurements with constant drop volume. Control of wettability of some materials by physico-chemical treatment

Abstract— A modified express method of contact angle measurement based on determining the diameter of a drop with a known volume has been elaborated. The method offers a number of advantages: it can be used in an express manner for in situ dynamic investigation and makes it possible to observe inhomogeneity and anisotropy of hydrophilicity. The method is convenient in comparative measurements and does not require any special equipment.

Using the proposed method, the possibility of hydrophilic control of some materials (silicate glass, TiO2 (anataze) and polymetilmetacrylate (PMMA)) by UV (ultra violet) and chloroform vapor treatment has been studied. In particular, hydrophilicity of PMMA after UV irradiation was observed, and it is shown that changes in hydrophilicity are connected with the surface oxidation of PMMA. The observed phenomenon of hydrophilicity control can be used in various technologies, such as liquid coating, printing, spray quenching, nanolithography, pharmacology and others.

Keywords Contact angle, constant drop volume, control of hydrophilicity, physico-chemical treatment, PMMA, inorganic glass, TiO2.

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Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical studies and Antibacterial activity of Wood from Talipariti elatum Sw. (Fryxell) in Cuba

Abstract A preliminary pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Talipariti elatum (Sw.) that grows in Cubawas realized to determine the macromorphology and micromorphology characteristics, the physicochemical and phytochemical parameters from the wood of this spice that grows in Cuba. This crude drug showed the characteristic physicochemical values such as moisture content (7.6 %), total ashes (1.14%), water soluble ashes (0.19 %), acid insoluble ashes (0.33 %) and extractable matter in ethanol at 70 % (10.87 %). Phytochemical screening revealed the possible presence of triterpenes and/or steroids, reductants sugars, tannins and/or phenolic compounds, flavonoids and bitter and astringent principles, realized under WHO parameters. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts at 30, 50 and 70 % of the wood against Salmonella tiphymurium 14028, Bacillus cereus 11778, Escherichia coli 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus 25923showed varying degrees of inhibition on the tested organisms.

Keywords Talipariti elatum, wood, pharmacognostical, phytochemical, antibacterial.

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Enlargement of Amanatun, South Central Timor Regency

Abstract South Central Timor Regency is one of the Regency within the Province of East Nusa Tenggara. It lies on 3955,36 km2 with 32 Sub-Districts and population of 459.310 people which made it as Regency with most Kecamatan (Sub-District) and most populated area in Province of East Nusa Tenggara. Thus, due it its large size, less optimum service of regional government regarding might occur. One solution offered for this issue was regional enlargement, which become the proposed enlargement of Amanatun. Amanatun was taken from the name of a kingdom during West Indies governance, which was includes in Afdeeling (Regency) South Central Timor. This proposition of Amanatun enlargement was having its own background that became the trigger and objectives of the people who desire this enlargement. Objectives of this study was to discover the triggers and objectives expected from Amanatun enlargement and whether there was relationship between the trigger and objectives of Amanatun enlargement also what is the form of this enlargement according to the prevails laws and regulations. Analysis process was using Partial Least Square (PLS) and appropriateness level for enlargement was based on government regulation guidelines.

Keywords regional enlargement, trigger, objectives, relationship between effect of trigger toward objectives of enlargement, PLS, appropriateness level of enlargement based on laws and regulations.

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Parametric Analysis on Buildings with Connecting Corridors

AbstractThe architectural design of modern buildings has been highly integrated and multi-functional. Connected high-rise structures, which comprise of main towers and corridor in between at a certain height falls under the category of irregular building structure system. This thesis presents a study on the various buildings with connecting structures, under lateral loading conditions such as the seismic loads. The software ETABS was used for modeling the structure. Linear static analysis and linear dynamic analysis was conducted to analyse the models. For seismic loading, the parameters such as storey displacements, storey drifts, overturning moment, base shear, axial and bending moments in the corridor beams are studied. It is understood that each building behaved differently under seismic loads.

Keywordsbase shear, connected corridors, drift, overturning moment seismic analysis.

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Comparison of Turbulence Models in the Flow over a Backward Facing Step

AbstractThis work presents the numerical simulation and analysis of the turbulent flow over a two-dimensional channel with a backward-facing step. The computational simulation performed in this study is based on the Reynolds equations using a technique denominated Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS). The main objective of the present work is the comparison of different models of turbulence applied to the turbulent flow over a backward-facing step. The performance of each RANS model used will be discussed and compared with the results obtained through a direct numerical simulation present in the literature. The RANS turbulence models used are k-ω, k-ε, Shear Stress Transport k-ω (SST k-ω) and the second-order closure model called Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The Reynolds number used in all the numerical simulations constructed in this study is equal to 9000, based on the height of the step h and the inlet velocity Ub. The results are the reattachment length, the mean velocity profiles and the turbulence intensities profiles. The k-ε model obtained poor results in most of the analyzed variables in this study. Among the RANS turbulence models, the SST k-ω model presented the best results of reattachment length, mean velocity profile and contour when compared to results obtained in the literature. The RSM model found the best results of turbulence intensity profile, when compared to the models of two partial differential equations that use the Boussines hypothesis.

Keywordsbackward-facing step, DNS, RANS, turbulence models.

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