Thursday, 30 September 2021

Engineering Journal September 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-9, September 2021 with AD Publications

Effect of Processing Method of Kidney Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) on Carcass Quality, Organ Weight and Organoleptic Properties of Broiler

Abstract Effect of processing method of kidney beans (phaseolus vulgaris) on carcass quality, organ weight and organoleptic properties of broiler was studied using one hundred and twenty day-old chicks (Arbo acre strain). Raw, dehulled and boiled KB were used for treatment 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Prior to grinding of KB, 50kg was boiled at 100 0C for 1 hour, 10kg was dehulled by immersing in cool water for 20 hours, and seed coat removed. The work was carried out using completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates of 10 birds per replicate. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 22. The relative weight of liver, spleen and heart had no significant effect (p>0.05) within the dietary treatment. The weight of the liver was smaller in birds fed raw kidney beans meal and the liver was characterized by marked coagulative necrosis. The weight of the gizzard was significantly (p<0.05) higher in birds fed control diet. Furthermore there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in birds fed boiled, dehulled and control diets on the breast weight but significantly smaller in those fed raw diet meal. There were also no significant differences on the drumstick, thigh, neck and head size. Tenderness was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Juiciness, taste, and flavour intensity showed significant differences within the dietary treatment while overall acceptability showed a significant increase with the boiled kidney bean meal. Consequently, birds fed with BKD performed better in the organoleptic properties, while those on dehulled kidney beans meal gave better result for organ weight and carcass yield. In conclusion, sensory characteristics, organ weight, and carcass yield is an indication that kidney beans especially the boiled and dehulled one can serve as a feed ingredient in broiler ration would have no adverse effect.

Keywords— dehulled kidney beans, organoleptic properties, sensory characteristics.

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UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS of Ethanolic Extract of the Flowers from Spathodea Campanulata Beauv. in Cuba

Abstract A sample of ethanolic extract of the flowers from Spathodea campanulata Beauv. was scrutinized using a UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS Thermo scientific Dionex Ultimate 3000 RS coupled to a Thermo scientific LTQ XL mass spectrometer. In addition, about nine different chemical compounds were tentatively identified in this species based on chromatography retention time (Rt), UV and MS/MS spectra and compared with those of isolated authentic compound and literature data in our country for the first time. Information obtained from these studies can be used as biomarkers in the identification and standardization of this flower as an herbal remedy and also towards monograph development on the plant.

Keywords— UHPLC, Flowers, Chemical compounds, Ethanolic extract, Spathodea campanulata.

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Comparison of different Poly vinyl chloride (PVC) /Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) blends and their properties

Abstract The effects of micro and nanoscale calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles on the mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were investigated. Type of (PVC S5070) were used as the matrix in this study, hydrocarb 95T CaCO3 as a micro size particles, and SOCAL 312 CaCO3 as a nano size particles with different phr (0 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%). The nano-CaCO3 particles were observed by FT-IR spectras. Nano- CaCO3 increased the tensile strength and affected the tensile strength of PVC more than micro-CaCO3 particles. The raise in hardness shore (A) is more considerable in nano-CaCO3 filled PVC compared to that of micro-CaCO3. TSDC test investigated that nano-CaCO3 in PVC samples have greater electrical resistance, and the maximum volume resistivity in micro-CaCO3 in PVC samples which mixed by ultrasonic. Thermal characterization of PVC samples were tested by DMA. Storage modulus and loss factor (tan δ) examined and showed that the storage modulus of PVC decreased as a function of temperature. The storage modulus can be increased concurrently by the presence of CaCO3. The glass transition of nano-CaCO3 sample mixed by ultrasonic has higher glass transition than other samples which mixed by normal mixing.

Keywords Calcium carbonate, Polymer composites, PVC, Micro-CaCO3, Nano-CaCo3.

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Thursday, 16 September 2021

Engineering Journal August 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-8, August 2021 with AD Publications

Credit Card Fraud Detection using SMOTE and Ensemble Methods

Abstract We focused on the study of using math modeling and machine learning to do big data analysis, therefore to detect Credit card fraud, which is one of the serious issues in real life. In order to detect credit card fraud, after reviewed many recent research, we chose the most popular models among credit card fraud detection, which are Random Forest (RF), and ANN with multi-layers (DNN). We evaluated the accuracy and recall of these models in detecting credit card fraud with or without SMOTE, and found out that there is no significant improvement in the accuracy of these models with or without SMOTE training, but RF with SOMTE has a little bit vantage than others. There is a significant improvement in recall of these three models with SMOTE training. Especially, with SMOTE training, ANN or DNN is of better performance in the recall than RF. Therefore, we combine RF and DNN to generate a hybrid model so that it produces better stability in accuracy and recall. The study discovered that neural network models have greater potential for finding abnormal data in the big data stream. This has important guiding significance for what mathematical model that credit card companies use to monitor the cash flow and remind customers of the possible risk of credit card fraud.

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Assessment of Some Heavy Metals as Contaminants in Petroleum Contaminated Soils of Eleme, Port Harcourt Nigeria

Abstract Samples from petroleum contaminated soil of Eleme, Port Harcourt and from non petroleum contaminated soil, Awka, Nigeria serving as control were analyzed for heavy metals. The results of the analysis showed that the metals concentrations in mg/kg were Ni <0.05- 2.05, Cr 0.005- 0.37, Cd <0.005- 0.008, Zn 0.14 – 2.87 Pb <0.02- 0.19 Fe 12.32-29.11, Mn < 0.008- 0.036, Se <0.001, as <0.001, and V <0.001. Majority of the metal concentrations were above those of the control. Though the values obtained did not exceed soil quality standards stipulated in the Environmental Management Regulations, 2007, the toxic metals could accumulate to a threatening level over a period of time. Food poisoning, occupational hazards and various disorders emanate from heavy load of toxic metals in our environment.

Environmental pollution may result from industrial and commercial activities when substances resulting from these activities enter the environment and attain levels which may cause discomfort and / or harm to man and his environment (Udosen et al, 1990). From the point of view of environmental pollution, metals may be broadly classified into three categories namely, non-toxic but accessible, toxic but non-accessible and toxic and accessible .It is the third category that has attracted more attention from the point of view of environmental pollution and public health (Dara, 2008).

Moriber (1974) reported that the consumption of waste water from a mine which produced cadmium, zinc and lead resulted in rickets-like disease called itai-itia.

Keywords— Heavy Metals as Contaminants, Petroleum Contaminated Soils, Port Harcourt, soil quality, toxic metals.

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Engineering Journal June 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-6, June 2021 with AD Publications

Application of Data Mining Techniques using Internet of Things

Abstract The generation and growing power of computer science have boosted data collection, storage, and manipulation as data sets are broad in size and complexity level. Internet of Things (IOT) is the most popular term in describing this new interconnected world. The massive data generated by the Internet of Things (IoT) are considered of high business value, and data mining algorithms can be applied to IoT to extract hidden information from data. As more and more devices connected to IoT, the latest algorithms should be applied to IOT. This paper explores a systematic review of various data mining models as well as its applications in the Internet of things along with its advantages and disadvantages.

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Fusing Optimal Odometry Calibration and Partial Visual Odometry via A Particle Filter for Autonomous Vehicles Navigation

Abstract Autonomous vehicles are increasingly becoming ubiquitous in the 21st century; they find application in agriculture, industry, airplanes, cars, service robotics, and others; in order to display autonomous guidance, a vehicle needs to estimate its position and orientation relative to an arbitrary coordinate system; to do so, several sources of information can be used, including images, global positioning systems, inertial measurements or odometry, each according to the application; methods, such as Kalman Filter can be used to combine the several sources of information; however, the more accurate each source of information is, the better the estimation of vehicle position and orientation will be; therefore, the calibration of the parameters of the odometrical systems in autonomous terrestrial vehicles is a must; visual guidance is also an important technology used for vehicle guidance. In this paper, it is presented an off-line method for odometry calibration using a genetic algorithm and the fusion of odometry data with heading information from camera data; a particle filter is used to fuse the data from the optical encoder and the camera. This method was tested in an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) with tricycle topology, demonstrating high accuracy in position estimation and guidance through arbitrary paths.

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Engineering Journal May 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-5, May 2021 with AD Publications

Prototype of a Monitoring System Based on the Arduino Platform and the Paradigm of Pan-Tilt Movement

Abstract The following article presents the implementation of a low cost property security system through the use of the Arduino Uno board, which has a reasonable processing capacity and the ability to manipulate devices that perform functions of robotics and embedded instrumentation. The programming was carried out through the Servo.h library, which follows the Arduino integrated development environment (IDE) and functions designed to read analog and digital signals. The current prototype is formed by a webcam attached to a Pan-Tilt support, composed by two servomotors and being controlled through a 2-axis potentiometer joystick that allows the vertical and horizontal movement of the prototype. The captured images were recorded using software made available by the camera manufacturer. Consequently, the laptop used in the project played the role of a digital network video recorder (NVR) while discarding the need to use a video monitor. In this way, an electronic monitoring system was obtained, capable of functioning as an effective protection instrument.

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Person Re-identification

Abstract Person re-identification could be essential operation for any multi-camera observation situation. Until presently, it has been performed by misusing fundamentally appearance prompts, hypothesizing that the people cannot alter their clothes. In this paper, we unwind this limitation by displaying a set of 3D soft-biometric signals, being uncaring to appearance varieties that are assembled utilizing RGB-D innovation. The point utilizes of these characteristics gives empowering exhibitions on a benchmark of 79 individuals that have been captured in different days and with different clothing. This advances a novel investigate heading for the re-identification community, backed moreover by the reality that an unused of affordable of RGB-D cameras have as of late attacked the around the world advertise.

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Wednesday, 31 March 2021

Engineering Journal: March 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-3, March 2021 with AD Publications

Energy Savings in Renewable Integrated Distribution Network and Impact of Storage Devices

Abstract Energy loss reduction is a significant issue for Renewable energy planning in the Distribution system. The high penetration of wind and solar became the primary task for the optimal size of energy storage to support the power mismatch. In the present work, energy savings have been obtained in a renewable integrated distribution system. The impact of the energy storage device has also been evaluated. The main contribution of this paper is:

  • Optimal location of DGs and battery are obtained by solving single and multi-objective functions.
  • Determination of DG and battery size for loss savings.
  • Impact of battery energy storage device on loss profile and total cost of the system.

The simulation results of the test system have been compared with other existing results.

Keywords— Radial distribution system, Battery energy storage device, Energy Loss minimisation, optimal sizing and siting, Renewable Energy sources.

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Metal-Containing Nanocomposites on the Basis of Isotactic Polypropylene and Butadiene-Nitrile Rubber

Abstract One and two-step methods for the synthesis of saccharin-6-carboxylic acid triglyceride were studied. The reesterification reactions of 2-hydroxypropyl-1,3-bis-ethersulfoimide of this acid and glycerol with some aliphatic saccharin-6-carboxylic acid esters were carried out. The resulting products are characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. It was found that when using a two-step method, the end product is obtained with the highest yield (85%). The influence of additions of nanofillers (NF) containing nanoparticles of the copper oxide, stabilized by polymer matrix of maleinized polyethylene of high pressure (MPE), obtained by mechano-chemical method on peculiarities of structure and properties of metal-containing nanocomposites on the basis of isotactic polypropylene (PP) and butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNR) by methods of X-ray phase (RPhA) and differential-thermal analyses (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been investigated. It has been revealed an improvement of the strength, deformation and rheological indices and also the thermal-oxidative stability of the obtained nanocomposites, which has been apparently connected with the synergetic effect of the interaction of the zinc-containing nanoparticles with maleic groups of MPE. It has been shown that the nanocomposites on the basis of PP/BNR/HF can be processed both by pressing method and by methods of casting under pressure and extrusion, which expands the sphere of its application.

Keywords butadiene-nitrile rubber, DTA, isotactic polypropylene, metal-containing nanocomposites, nanoparticles of zinc oxide, RPhA, SEM – analyses, thermal properties.

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Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Crude Glycerol by Purple Non-Sulfur Photo Fermentative Bacteria, Rhodobacter Meghalophilus

Abstract As the world is progressing faster with new technological innovations, the need and demand for energy is also constantly expanding. In the light of conventionally available fossil fuel reserves being exhausted extensively that has left a very deep scar on environment, the urge for alternative environment friendly energy source is the need for energy sustenance. Hydrogen gas is distinct for its high calorific value, clean fuel characteristic and suitability for wide applications. Chemical method likes steam reforming, coal gasification are established technologies available for industrial hydrogen needs but are high in terms of cost and energy input. Biological methods are promising routes for hydrogen gas generation as they can be cost effective and use a variety of organic materials as substrates. The current study is focused on generation of hydrogen gas using Rhodobacter meghalophilus, a mesophilic, and purple non sulfur photo fermentative bacteria. Crude glycerol, byproduct from biodiesel plants is used as carbon substrate because of its rich organic content. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of process parameters viz. volume of crude glycerol, pH and light intensity on generation of hydrogen gas. Crude glycerol in the media was varied from 5 – 15% (v/v), pH between 5.8 – 8.3 and the light intensity at 500, 1000 and 2000 Lx respectively. At 15% (v/v) of crude glycerol, pH of 7.8 and 1000 Lx, the volume of hydrogen gas obtained was 490 ml/L with the substrate to hydrogen gas conversion rate as 0.012 mol/ mol of crude glycerol with light conversion efficiency of 1.16%.

Keywords— Bio hydrogen, Clean energy, Crude glycerol, Photo fermentation, Rhodobacter meghalophilus.

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Engineering Journal: February 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-2, February 2021 with AD Publications

Direct analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS of 8 purified fractions from ethanolic extracts of Talipariti elatum’s flowers in Martinica

Abstract From ethanolic extracts of the flowers of Talipariti elatum (Sw.) eigth different samples were isolated, purified and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS to determine the chemical constituents that they content. Each sample was separated and reinjected to get the most possible information about the chemical compounds that they posses. After an exhaustive analysis 8 different chemical components were tentatively identified according to their MS and literature data. Two compounds until remain unknown.

Keywords— Talipariti elatum, ethanolic extract, flowers, UHPLC-MS, chemical components.

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Performance Evaluation of Bentonite Muds Formulated using Cassava Starch Treated with Preservatives

Abstract Extensive works have been done on the subject matter of local sourcing of drilling fluid additives to reduce our importation burdens especially in this era of dwindling oil fortunes. This local sourcing will bolster industrialization and reduce unemployment in a vast economy like Nigeria. The results of the previous studies have shown promising potentials which are in tandem with our local content mandate of the government. Cassava starch has been identified as one of these additives and our ranking as the world largest producer of cassava remains instructive. Currently, all the starch used in the oil and gas industry is imported. The major constraint to the use of cassava starch is their extreme susceptibility to post-harvest degradation. This work, therefore, is an attempt to address this problem of stability by the application of appropriate preservatives without prejudice to the rheological properties of the mud. In carrying out this study at temperatures of 80, 120, 150 and 1900F, three cassava starch cultivars TMS 92/0057, TMS 98/0581 and TMS 96/1632 and four common preservatives in the food industry; the salts of benzoate, propionate, sorbate and metabisulphite were used in the bentonite mud formulations. The result showed that out of the sixty-one mud formulations, only five of them adequately met the API rheological properties threshold. These five muds exhibited properties that compare favourably to the imported starch sample. This stabilized product holds much promise as a substitute to the imported starch for use in water-based drilling mud formulations for the Nigerian oil industry.

Keywords— Cassava starch, Drilling fluids, Rheology, Preservatives.

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Tuesday, 30 March 2021

Engineering Journal: January 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-1, January 2021 with AD Publications

Non-typical designs of Polypropylene Capillary Heat Exchangers

Abstract— The present article describes a heat exchanger with transparent (smooth) fibres with an atypical body shape and an atypical arrangement of polypropylene capillaries inside. The exchanger cross-section was of a square shape. This type of exchanger was subjected to the investigation of the impact of the fibre arrangement on the overall heat transfer coefficient and behaviour of fibres during the experiment. The exchanger was examined in the counter flow arrangement. The exchanger with 1,400 transparent fibres with the outer diameter of 0.275 mm was examined at the secondary fluid flow rate of 150 l·h-1 to identify the overall heat transfer coefficient k which amounted to 520 W·m-2·K-1. When compared to an exchanger with identical parameters of fibres placed inside a cylindrical exchanger body, a decrease in the overall heat transfer coefficient represented 14%. At the flow rate of 200 l·h-1, the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient identified experimentally was 632 W∙m-2·K-1. When compared to cylindrical exchanger with comparable fibre parameters, the value was 33% lower.

Keywords— Heat exchangers, polypropylene fibres, typical designs Polypropylene Capillary.

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Voltage Control in Distribution System with Reactive Power Dispatch

Abstract Due to large resistance and lower reactance of lines, the voltage control and power loss became a crucial issue. The flat voltage profile, is therefore expected to distribution system at each node, minimum power loss, the maximum cost of saving and maximum efficiency. In this context, to find the size and location of compensating devices for the reactive power and voltage control devices became the essential need. In this paper, the multi-objective optimisation problem is solved for the sizing and location of reactive power compensating devices in the distribution system. The main contributions of the proposed work are

  • To address the hybrid algorithm to determine the location and size of Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM).
  • The power loss and voltage deviation are minimised.
  • The impact of D-STATCOM with minimum voltage growth is analysed.

The results are verified, tabulated and compared with other methods. The IEEE-33 bus test system has been taken for the analysis.

Keywords— Power loss minimisation, voltage deviation, D-STATCOM.

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Engineering Journal September 2021

Effect of Processing Method of Kidney Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) on Carcass Quality, Organ Weight and Organoleptic Properties of Broiler A...