Thursday, 31 May 2018

Engineering Journal: May 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-5, May 2018 with AD Publications

Analysis on the junction point’s stress located at considering fluid-solid coupling effects for support arm under different wall thickness

Abstract Fluid-structure interaction has a significant effect on stresses in the hinge point because of the impact of ocean currents to the pipeline. Aimed to support arms for deep-sea mining, numerical analysis method and the finite element software ADINA were adopted to analyze the pipeline structure - external fluid mutual coupling effect on stress at the hinge point. The results were shown that: (1) In the case of different wall thickness, the stress changes of the entire pipeline is relatively small, stress located mainly these places close to the junction in the pipelines, the maximum stress exists at the upper connection; (2) With wall thickness of the support pipe increasing, the maximum stress decreases, and when wall thicknesses changed from 9.5mm to 28.7mm interval 2.4mm ,the maximum stress value decreased 19.3%, 15.9%, 13.5%, 11.7%, 10.3%, 9.2%, 8.3%, 7.6% ;(3) With wall thickness increasing, the minimum stress value also reduced, and a minimum stress values decreased 19.9%​​, 14.0%, 5%, 14.6%, 28.7%, 15.9%, 8.6%, 2.7%,respectively.

Keywords Support arm, Fluid–structure interaction, Different wall thickness, Stress.

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Integrated Process Planning and Scheduling of Mechanical Manufacturing

Abstract This paper presents a product time and cost estimation method taking account the market dynamics and manufacturing system competitiveness. The method is based on the behavioral modeling using on-line unsupervised learning. On one hand, it is modeled the interaction between task and manufacturing system, and on the other hand the interaction between task and market, finally resulting behavioral modeling of the market-manufacturing system relationship to substantiate the strategic component of the competitive management thus ensuring extension in time of the high performance.

Keywords Behavioral modeling, Cost estimation, Manufacturing system, Product time.

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An Intelligent Knowledge Management for Machining System

Abstract— Today, information has become more important. Even data, information and knowledge are often used as if they have same meaning. This problem raises difficulties in engineering. It is necessary to exist a knowledge management system to avoid increased costs, waste of time and increased errors. Knowledge management is a comprehensive process of knowledge creation, knowledge validation, knowledge presentation, knowledge distribution and knowledge application. In this paper, knowledge management has been explained in general. Then as an example for this study, machining system has been considered, and an application of Knowledge Management in engineering has been attempted to explain. The paper proposes a knowledge management to achieve a competitive control of the machining systems. The model can be used by the manager for the choosing of competitive orders.

Keywords Competitive control, Information technology, Knowledge management, Machining system, Marketing knowledge.

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Performance Analysis of Manufacturing System at the Operational Level

Abstract In this paper, we propose a method to control of make-to-order (MTO) manufacturing system for the operation level. Control achieved with the proposed method is based on modeling the relationship between cost and time, two very important elements of manufacturing process performance evaluation. In order to better represent the specified goal of manufacturing process we propose (as a novelty) as a criteria the Earning Power (EP). It is both synthetic (because it reflects the essential motivation of manufacturing process) as compliant with the most important five performance aspects, namely: profitability, conformance to specifications, customer satisfaction, return on investment and materials/overhead cost, selected by researchers in order of importance.

Keywords Control, Earning power, Manufacturing operation, Manufacturing system, Simulation.

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Analysis of Scheduling Models Applicable in Referral Health Systems

Abstract Scheduling patient referrals is one of the most important administrative responsibilities performed in the medical office. A referral scheduling algorithm can be a useful tool in the hands of a primary provider. Primary providers are lacking knowledge regarding the care and treatment of chronic diseases and are not familiar with the current status of available resources (consultant doctors) for patient referrals. During patient referral there is a need to know of the availability of the consultant doctor and his/her status in terms of the patient workload. Referring a patient to a doctor with many patients on the waiting queue might delay the treatment. This can results in “added healing time, pain, and even death. This paper investigates the scheduling models applicable in referral health systems and hence proposes a suitable scheduling optimization model.

Keywords Dynamic, Static, Scheduling, Referral, Model.

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Effect of Base Isolation in Multistoried RC Regular and Irregular Building using Time History Analysis

Abstract Base isolation (BI) is a technique that has been used around the world to protect the building structures from the damaging effects of earthquake. The installation of isolator in building at base level considerably increases the time period of the structure, which means it reduces the possibility of resonance of the structure giving rise to better seismic performance of the building. The analysis is performed to compare the effectiveness of base isolation in regular and irregular multi-storied RC frame building. For this study, 15 storied R.C frame building has been considered and Time History analysis is carried out using ETABS software version 2013. The Lead Rubber Bearing (LRB) is designed by considering the maximum gravity load coming on the column at the base and the same has been used for analysis. The results obtained from the analysis are compared in terms of time period, base shear, story displacement and story acceleration. Time period for the base isolated structures are higher than that of the fixed base structure. Due to the presence of isolator, base shear and story acceleration are significantly reduced in each direction (X and Y direction) as compared to fixed base building. When compared to base isolated regular building the plan irregular (re-entrant corner) and vertical irregular (vertical geometric irregular) base isolated building gives better performance.

Keywords Base Isolation, Time History Analysis, lead rubber Bearing, UBC 97 code, ETABS 2013, Base shear.

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Electrophoretic Analysis of Proteins of Chemical Treated Human

Abstract Strong oxidising agents for bleaching and chemical treatments for regeneration of dry and damaged hair are most common factors that cause changes in protein structure and composition. Composition changes in fibrillar proteins - α keratins and globular proteins - KAP's (keratin-associated proteins) were investigated by protein analysis of the hair fiber using SDS-PAGE. The most significant changes in obtained electrophoregrams from SDS-PAGE analysis of bleached hair were observed in matrix protein fractions (KAP's), which contain a high concentration of cystine. Constructed electrophoregram from SDS-PAGE gel of hair treated with protein treatment indicates a new protein fraction with a molecular weight of about 2000 Da, probably due on hydrolyzed keratin as an ingredient of protein treatments.

Keywords bleaching, hair protein treatments, SDS-PAGE.

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Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Some N-alkylisatin-B-thiocarbohydrazones

Abstract The effectiveness of microwave-assisted preparation of N-alkylisatin-b-thiocarbohydrazones, where alkyl group is methyl and ethyl, was evaluated. The corresponding N-alkylisatin-b-thiocarbohydrazones were predominantly obtained by TCH and N-alkyl substituted isatin in molar ratio 3:1. Reactions of carbonyl-amine condensation were performed in water acidified to pH 1.5 as a solvent system. Reaction mixtures were exposed to microwave irradiation under 300W and pressure 200 psi, for a specified incubation period of 5-15 min. The yield of products obtained by microwave assisted reaction was similar to that had been obtained using conventional reflux method (about 70% to 80%), with reduction of time. The structures of synthesized N-alkylisatins and corresponding N-alkylisatin-b-thiocarbohydrazones were established on the basis of recorded spectral data from IR, GC-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

Keywords Microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS), N-alkylisatin, N-alkylisatin-b-thiocarbohydrazone.

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Dry solid feeding characteristics by computational particle-fluid dynamics simulation at high pressure

Abstract The parameters affecting particle injection in a high pressure powder fuel injection system were verified by using computational particle fluid dynamics (CPFD). The particles were coal ( =175 μm, ρs = 1350 kg/m3), and the simulation was performed by changing the clearance between the roller and the hose and by changing the total pressure drop. Also, the wall erosion of the hose was confirmed by changing the clearance. As the clearance decreases from 10 mm to 1 mm when the total pressure difference is 10 bar, it is confirmed that the injection of the particles is increased two-fold, but the power of the motor should be increased to 1.45 times. When the clearance is 5mm, as the total pressure drop is increased from 10 bar to 30 bar, the particle injection rate decreases 0.33-fold, but the motor power must be increased 3-fold. Also, it was confirmed that the wall erosion of the hose was large when the clearance was 7 mm or more.

Keywords Dry solid feeding, high pressure, simulation, Clearance, Backflow.

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Monday, 14 May 2018

Engineering Journal: April 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-3, March 2018 with AD Publications

Dimensioning of a natural ponds as wastewater treatment plant for the city of Ouazzane

AbstractMorocco has a mobilizable water heritage of 21 billion m3 including 16 billion m3 of surface water and 5 billion m3 of groundwater. Unfortunately due to the exponential population growth and economic and social development, these water resources cannot meet the growing demand of the agriculture, industry and drinking water sectors.

In addition, more than 546 million m3 of raw wastewater is discharged annually into the receiving environment and only a tiny proportion is reused in the irrigation of about 7000 ha. Most of the wastewater discharged is responsible for the pollution of the environment.

To seek new water resources while curbing pollution, Morocco has undertaken a gigantic project of treatment of its wastewater. The city of Ouazzane, like other urban agglomerations, must choose an adequate system for the purification of its wastewater discharges.

The present work proposes the design and sizing of a natural lagoon WWTP based on demographic data, pollutant load, wastewater flow and availability of land for the city of Ouazzane.

The project proposes a pretreatment using a vertical manual screens of 36 bars of 10 mm diameter and spaced 12 mm and a Grit/Grease Separator of 5.6x1.8 m in size. Primary treatment with a circular primary decanter 16 m in diameter, 3 m deep and 602.88 m in volume. Four anaerobic basins 4 m deep, 8204 m3 in volume and 58.02 x 35.35 m in size. Also four Optional ponds 2m deep, 41008m3 deep and 107 x 192m in size. Finally, four maturation ponds of 1 m deep and 6400 m3 of volume each.

Keywords Wastewaters, Epuration, Lagoons, Ouazzane, Morocco.

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Electron Tomography (=Controlled Electron Tomography)

Abstract Proposed “electron tomography” or electron imaging of human body is most advanced technology to be available to do tomography of human body in comparison to existing CT(Computerised tomography), MRI(magnetic resonance imaging), PET(positron emission tomography), SPECT(single photon emission computed tomography).

Keywords electron tomography, electron imaging of human body, Computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography.

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Investigation of the surface morphology of ASD-4 powder, modified by V2O5

Abstract The changes in the surface layer of aluminum particles treated with V2O5 • nH2O hydrogel were studied by ellipsometry and raster electron microscopy methods. It was shown that at 0.8 wt.% content of metallic vanadium in the modified powder, the particle surface layer has a well developed relief, and a high degree of impregnation is achieved. The values of the thickness of this layer measured by different methods were compared, and the obtained deviations were analyzed.

Keywords aluminum powder, surface modification, vanadium pentoxide, microscopy, ellipsometry.

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Transient Excited State of Neutron

Abstract Spinning of proton and electrons in nucleus results in separation of charges and inside of nucleus gets positively charged whereas the electrons occupying outermost part of nucleus becomes negatively charged which is transient.

Keywords Neutron, spinning, transient state.

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Determining Important Grade of Environmental Risk Factors at Slopes

Abstract Both, natural and man-made slopes formed for various purposes may cause numerous permanent problems in engineering applications. Therefore, it is important to know composition and mechanical behavior of soil environment leading to geotechnical problems on slope surfaces. The risk analyzes of natural and artificial slopes, realized detailed, can lead to reliable results. Based on those results, it is possible to produce optimal technical solutions with respect to an acceptable risk level. The researches on these subjects give new opportunities to improve the existing knowledge by reviewing them. The main aim of this study is objectively to evaluate the parameters caused slope stability problems. In this regard, the parameters of slope angle, internal friction angle and cohesion of soil, and groundwater level, which are main risk factors for a slope, and should contribute to raise awareness about this issue, were investigated.

Keywords Factor of safety, risk factors, slope stability.

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Clear-Water Experimental Scour Depths at Abutments

AbstractLaboratory experiments on local scour process at wing wall bridge abutments were conducted for different hydraulic conditions and compared with measurements on local scour depths around vertical wall abutments, under the same flow and sediment transport conditions. The study reports an extensive experimental investigation performed in a laboratory flume in the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, whose findings are used to describe the effects of different hydraulic parameters on local scour depth variation in the vicinity of the constructions. Three different sizes of wing wall abutment’s lengths, transverse to the flow direction, were used in order to investigate the impact of this parameter to local scour variation. The expected bed erosion and the maximum scour depth at the upstream edge of the wing wall abutments are satisfactorily simulated by the experimental procedure. All the experimental results are graphically presented and comparisons between clear-water scour depths around the vertical wall and the wing wall abutments show lower values of scour depths in the vicinity of the wing wall abutments, under the same hydraulic and sediment transport conditions and for the same abutment widths. The experimental data of clear-water scour conditions were used to determine an equation of maximum equilibrium scour depth through regression analysis. The estimated scour depths were in agreement with the experimental values for each abutment geometry.

KeywordsAbutments, Laboratory experiments, Open channels, Scour depth.

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Application of the Factorial Design Technique for the Optimization of the Chemical Isolation Process of Lead in Environmental Analyzes

AbstractNuclear energy plays a key role in long-term development plans and can guarantee the supply of electricity to some regions. On the other hand, the implementation of these projects tends to require long maturation periods, require high investment costs and may be a source of pollutants, such as Lead (Pb). For this reason, the periodic environmental monitoring of the concentration of pollutants becomes necessary, according to the current legislation. Thus, the present work presents as a proposal a method of optimization of Pb quantification in environmental analyzes. The study was developed through the monitoring of wastewater samples from INB – Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil. From the Fractional Factorial Design(FFD) the most representative variables of the Pb isolation process were determined, and through the Central Composite Design (CCD) the response surface was found, generating a regression model that represents the system. The results indicated that the optimization of the chemical yield of Pb is associated to the higher dosages of Nitrilotriacetic Acid (NTA) and Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) in the samples. The optimum yield condition was obtained in the region of 200 ml of H2SO4 and 4.0 g of NTA, considering the range tested. The proposal proved to be effective for the validation tests of the model, obtaining an increase of up to 32% in the Pb yields of the analyzes.

KeywordsChemical Yield, Environmental Analyzes, Lead, Nuclear Power, Response Surface.

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Image Based Visual Servoing for Omnidirectional Wheeled Mobile Robots in Voltage Mode

AbstractThis paper presents a new image based visual servoing (IBVS) control scheme for omnidirectional wheeled mobile robots with four swedish wheels. The contribution is the proposal of a scheme that consider the overall dynamic of the system; this means, we put together mechanical and electrical dynamics. The actuators are direct current (DC) motors, which imply that the system input signals are armature voltage applied to DC motors. In our control scheme the PD control law and eye-to-hand camera configuration are used to compute the armature voltages and to measure system states, respectively. Stability proof is performed via Lypunov direct method and LaSalle’s invariance principle. Simulation and experimental results were performed in order to validate the theoretical proposal and to show the good performance of the posture errors.

KeywordsIBVS, posture control, omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot, dynamic actuator, Lyapunov direct method.

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Determination of 3-chloropropanediol in soy sauce samples by liquid phase extraction coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection

Abstract3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-chloropropanediol) is a well-known food processing contaminant found in a wide range of foods and ingredients and there has been recent concern about the levels of carcinogenic 3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD) in some soy sauces. This paper reports on the development of an analytical method for the fast determination of 3-MCPD at trace level in commercial soy sauce using novel liquid phase extraction (LPE)/cleanup coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) method followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. In this method, 3-MCPD was first isolated from soy sauce sample matrix by LPE/cleanup with Extrude NT3 column cartridges and the isolated (eluent) solution was subjected to MAD with acetophenone to form 2-methyl-2-phenyl-4-(chloromethyl)-1,3-dioxolane under microwave irradiation using a specially modified domestic microwave oven, then the derivatizeddioxolane was directly analyzed with a HPLC-UV system. The optimum conditions for MAD such as the ratio of reagents, acidic catalyst, microwave irradiation power and time, as well as the chromatographic conditions were thoroughly investigated. Experimental results indicated that maximum derivatization can be achieved in 10 min under microwave irradiation at 362 watts when compared to 18 hours by conventional refluxing reaction. The proposed method provided a simple and rapid analytical procedure for 3-MCPD analysis in soy sauce with the detection limit of 80 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviations were all below 3.0 % (n = 7). Application was illustrated by the analysis of commercial sauce sample obtained from a local traditional store in central Taiwan.

Keywords3-Chloropropanediol, liquid phase extraction, microwave-assisted derivatization, sample preparation, soy sauce.

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Synthesis of oligoguanidine - Based on polycondensation and compare their Antimicrobial Activities with Chloramine B

Abstract Oligoguanidine with chain extension were synthesized by condensation and cross-linking polymerizations in an attempt to increase molecular weight and charge density of the anti microbial oligoguanidine. The reactions are procedure at 170 oC for 5h with ratio molar of HMDA: GHC = 1: 1.1, refined by vacuum filter at 60 oC. The Oligoguanidine OHMG.HCl synthesized has molecular weight equal 521 g/mol, chain structure and good water solubility. The comparison results of the antimicrobial activities of oligoguanidine with chloramine B indicated that MIC index of OHMG.HCl is 5ppm during MIC index of chloramine B is 50 ppm; MBC of OHMG.HCl is 12 minutes and MBC of chloramine B is 11 minutes; The SEM, TEM imagines exhibited clear biocide, low residue microorganism of OHMG.HCl. The LC-MS spectrum indicates the presence of haloacetic acid following the bactericidal action of chloramphen B, while OHGM.HCl is not available. This result confirms the environmental friendliness of oligoguanidine.

Keywords Oligoguanidine, Oligohexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride, antimicrobial polymer.

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Preparation Possibilities and Examination of Calcium alginate UHMWPE blends

Abstract Previous researches were made on UHMWPE (Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene) based implant material and its fusion with Ca-alginate. New methods were made for preparing UHMWPE-Ca-alginate blends. If the coating Ca-alginate salt can be achieved on the surface of UHMWPE, it might lead to an implant material which could promote the bone formation. Earlier results show that we can make the coating layer on the polymer powder surface. Our new approach is to modify the method we made earlier, and this way the alginate layer can withstand washing and sterilization as it’s shown in the paper. We also realized that the layer slowly can give off Ca2+ ions which can be absorbed with specific cells. Since we modified the surface structure of the UHMWPE samples we carried out wear testing of the new prepared samples. All of these measurements and experiments have been done as preparative ones to make one time real prosthetic material.

Keywords UHMWPE, Na-alginate, Ca-alginate.

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Metallurgical and mechanical behavior of brazed thin alloys sheets assemblies

Abstract Heat exchangers included in air conditioning systems for aircraft are produced by brazing stamped thin alloys sheets made of nickel-based alloys, Alloy 600 and Ni 201, or stainless steel, AISI 444. Separation metal sheets and locking bars of Alloy 625 are used to complete the system. The brazing filler metal, mainly composed of nickel, manganese, silicon and copper, is referred as BNi-8. In order to control brazing process, a good knowledge of both the brazing filler metal metallurgical behavior and of the interaction with the base metal is essential. The study of the brazing filler metal melting behavior in itself reveals that the melting point is highly dependent on the chemical composition and especially on silicon content. Microstructures analysis showed the presence of several phases with significant differences in terms of mechanical properties at a small scale which could induce local embrittlement. Interactions between the brazing filler metal and the different alloys constitutive of the assembly induce chemical composition evolutions related to the local configuration of the assembly. Dissolution and interdiffusion processes as well as chemical exchanges with the furnace environment occur. Finally, due to this set of phenomena, significant brazing defects can affect the mechanical integrity of the component.

Keywords Brazing, Microstructure, Melting point, Nickel-based filler metal.

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Thursday, 5 April 2018

Engineering Journal: March 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-3, March 2018 with AD Publications

Parameter Configuration Researched of Sludge Drying Treatment System on the Screw Press

Abstract The basic idea of modular design is applied to the planning and analysis of the screw press sludge treatment system in this paper. A combination mode of sludge treatment system is obtained. The functional modules of the system are formed. The interface information relation of each module is analyzed by system function. The process parameters of each module were precisely configured according to the dry requirements of sludge treatment and the initial sludge concentration. The transfer relationship between modules is achieved. The control parameters are determined according to the transfer relationship. The parameter basis is provided for the control design of the system.

Keywords Screw Process, Sludge drying treatment system, machinery, sludge concentration, control system.

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Measurements of PVC composite with Corn Cob flour additive

Abstract Mechanical and thermo-analytical analysis carried out on the composites. In order to determine the relationships between structure and properties of composite, it is necessary to carry out different measurements. The tests were: tensile test, hardness test, thermal conductivity SEM, DSC and DMA. The results showed that the mixtures were inhomogeneous. The tensile and hardness test resulted that the composite has stronger structure and an increase in the strength values. From the thermo-analytical analysis the corn cob additive effect in the composite structure can be observed. The result of the DMA shows that the additive works as inactive filler, and does not change the glass transition temperature of the rigid PVC foam.

Keywords Composite, PVC, foam, DSC, DMA.

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Rederivation and Investigation of E=mc2 for higher energy Production

Abstract E=mc2 is derived from equation E=Fd, implying that photon behaves like a particle. Energy(E)=Force(F) into Displacement(d) If a particle can reach higher speed, higher energy production is possible. Keywords energy, Einstein, velocity, particle.
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Multiuser Resource Allocation Algorithms for Downlink OFDMA-based MIMO Network

AbstractThe problem of simultaneous multiuser resource (subcarriers-and-bits) allocation algorithm in OFDMA-based multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) system has recently attracted significant interest. In this paper, we employ adaptive modulation technique and advanced use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to develop four resource allocation schemes. The first scheme assigns subcarrier to the user with best channel gain and employs spatial multiplexing (SM) on the MIMO system to further enhance the throughput. The space-division multiple-access (SDMA) scheme assigns single subcarrier simultaneously to the terminals with pairwise “nearly orthogonal” spatial signatures. In the third scheme, we propose to design the transmit beamformers based on the zero-forcing (ZF) criterion such that the multiuser interference (MUI) is completely removed. Specifically, we propose a low-complexity iterated terminals-selection algorithm in conjunction with the ZF criterion such that the selected ZF (SZF) scheme can be exploited to achieve throughput multiplication. Alternatively, we propose a least-squares (LS) based multiuser resource allocation algorithm to cope with the over-determined system such that all users are allowed to share single subcarrier.

KeywordsSDMA, OFDMA, MIMO, Selected Zero-Forcing (SZF), Least-Squares (LS).

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Online Shopping With Spoofing Detection Using Web and Mobile Application

Abstract E-commerce is that the shopping for marketing of products and services, or the sending of funds or knowledge, over a web and straightforward access to immense stores of reference material, email, and new avenues for advertising and data distribution, to call some. Like most technological advances, there conjointly another side: criminal hackers. Governments, companies, and personal voters round the world area unit anxious to be an area of this revolution, however, they are afraid that some hacker can burgle their net server and replace their brand with erotica, scan their e-mail, steals their MasterCard range from an on-line searching web site, or implant computer code that may on the QT transmit their organization secrets to the open net. Online shopping is used to getting order from the user through internet and mobile so, this is also called as mobile commerce. The goods are delivered to the customer with secured manner. The status about the product during delivery is to be monitored. A Secured Socket Layer (SSL) certificate is that the common place technique that wanted to defend net communications and it defend sensitive data because it travels across the net preventing any potential security attacks or threats on the approach. Essentially SSL could be a technology that encrypts and decrypts messages sent between the browser and server. Once the message is received by the server, SSL decrypts it, and verifies that it came from the right sender.

Keywords— HMM, K-MEANS, SSL.

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Antimicrobial effect of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from goat milk on perishable foods. San Luis. Argentina

Abstract— Strain selected for this study was isolated and named as sl36, from samples of goat milk collected from stainless steel drums in a dairy farm (San Luis, Argentina). The LAB strain was biochemically typified as Lactobacillus fermentum and designated as L. fermentum sl36. This identification was confirmed by 16S rRNA full sequences. The selected strain showed antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The inhibitory activity was lost after treatment with trypsin, which indicates that this activity is due to a protein nature substance compatible with bacteriocins produced by Gram positive bacteria.The inhibitory substance was stable at different pH and temperatures. Perishable food samples (semi-hard cheese, cream, cooked pork shoulder) were treated with cell free supernatant from studied strain and then with indicator S. aureus and E. faecalis bacteria suspensions. Lactobacillus fermentum sl36 caused the inhibition of the growth of E. faecalis and S. aureus in the treated foods. Our work shows that it is possible to increase the safety of food perishable directly using the bacteriocins produced by the LAB strains, difference from the more frequent practice of using the bacteria themselves as probiotics.

Keywords Antimicrobial activity, goat milk, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum, perishable foods.

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Microbial Fructosyltransferase: Production by Submerged Fermentation and Evaluation of pH and Temperature Effects on Transfructosylation and Hydrolytic Enzymatic Activities

AbstractFructosyltransferases (FTase, E.C. 2.4.1.9) are enzymes that catalyze transfructosylation reactions obtaining, as final product, fructose oligomers. In terms of industrial production, the use of microbial enzymes is interesting, especially those produced by Aspergillus sp. The aim of the work was to study the production of FTase by submerged fermentation and evaluation of pH and temperature effects on fructosyltransferase activity. The enzyme was produced by Aspergillus oryzae IPT 301 in a 10-liter bioreactor with growth medium containing sucrose as main carbon source. The assay was performed at 800 rpm, 30 °C, 0.75 vvm and pH 4.5. Transfructosylation (At) and hydrolytic (Ah) activities were determined in the temperature range from 35 to 65 °C and pH range from 3.5 to 6.0. It was observed that mycelial is increases with temperature, holding the maximum value at 50 – 65 ºC, while the optimum pH value were 5.0. The optimum temperature for extracellular At ranged from 55 to 65 °C and the optimum pH ranged from 5.0 to 6.0. Furthermore, the optimum temperature for mycelial Ah was 65 °C and optimum pH 4.5 - 5.0. For extracellular Ah, the optimum temperature and optimum pH were 55 to 65 °C and 3.5 to 6.0, respectively.

KeywordsAspergillus oryzae, Bioreactor, Fructooligosaccharides, Fructosyltransferase.

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Cold Photons in Space & Hot Photons in Atmosphere: A Review

Abstract— Space is dark because the photons released from sun have lost energy and became cold photons during their passage towards earth. Because photons do not have energy in space, so space is cold. When photons reach atmosphere, it hit suspended particles and get annihilated. Thus these photons produce energy and light is seen. A definite quantum of energy must hit retina of eye to detect light which is absent in space. This article explains the phenomenon assuming dual nature of light. Retina can see the particular wavelengths of light ranging from 380nm to 780nm.

Keywords photon, space, energy, wavelength.

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Effect of particle size distribution on mixing and segregation in a gas-solid fluidized bed with binary system

AbstractThe mixing and segregation characteristics were investigated in gas-solid fluidized beds with binary solid mixture. Bed materials were constituted with binary solids, having different size and density. To investigate the effect of particle size distribution on the mixing characteristics, two other binary solid mixtures were used, which have similar mean particle size and particle density, but their particle size distribution was different to each other. Bed column has ID=0.14 m and H=2.14m. Bed aspect ratio was 3.0. Bed materials were two sets: one of bed materials was the mixture of ilmenite (dp=153 mm, ρs=3,860 kg/m3) and coke (dp =582 mm, ρs =1,762 kg/m3), which has wide size distribution. The other bed materials was the mixture of ceramic beads (dp =122 mm, ρs =3,800 kg/m3) and plastic beads (dp =813 mm, ρs =1,500 kg/m3), which has narrow size distribution. Bed composition of ilmenite-coke mixture was determined to 0.7:0.3 by mass ratio. And, bed composition of ceramic beads-plastic beads was 0.75:0.25 by mass ratio. Axial bed pressure drop was measured according to gas velocity. Bed composition was measured according to axial bed height by sampling. Bed pressure drop of ilmenite-coke mixture was maximized above Uo=0.15 m/s, and fully fluidization was occurred. However, criterion of mixing to segregation was not found in the axial bed composition according to gas velocity. In the case of ceramicbeads-plastic beads mixture, bed pressure drop was maximized at Uo=0.05 m/s, and the criterion of mixing to segregation was found at the same gas velocity.

Keywordsgas-solid fluidized bed, segregation, mixing index, takeover velocity.

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Tracking down the Vehicle Collision Detection and Messaging System using GPS and GSM

Abstract Security in travelling is a primary concern for everyone. Rising demand for automobile has increased the traffic, thereby causing more accidents on the road. People often lose their lives because of poor emergency facilities in the case of unattended accidents. Pre-emption of the accidents taking place on the roads is not possible, but at least the after effects can be minimized. The proposed system ensures making emergency facilities available to accident victims as early as possible by letting relatives; by the way of monitoring the car using its number plate recognizes the camera. Before that it can act through the tollbooth, the vehicle number plate was captured by this camera and stores it in a database. It will check out that the vehicle was authorized or not, if the number plate was registered one, then it passes the entry to the vehicle, otherwise buzzer alarm will rise. When the car met an accident sense by vibration sensor making an alert to hospital or a rescue team knows the accident spot with the help of this module embedded in the vehicle. Sensors are attached to the ARDUINO-Controller. In the event that there is a mishap, the sensor gets enacted and the GSM framework will send notices to the closest doctor's facility, police headquarters or sort of the casualty with the area organizes where the mischance has happened. With the assistance of room route framework GPS finds the position of the vehicle where a mischance has happened.

Keywords Collision Detection, messaging system, GPS, GSM, mobile communication, security issue, sensors, GSM framework.

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Saturday, 3 March 2018

Engineering Journal: February 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-2, February 2018 with AD Publications

Synthesis and Use of Polyoxychloropropylen-Epoxymethacrylate Oligoesters as Active Modifier of Epoxy Diane Resin Ed-20

Abstract The synthesis of polyoxychloropropylenepoxymethacrylate oligoesters by esterification of polyoxychloropropylenetriepoxide by methacrylic acid has been carried out. It has been established that by varying the conditions of carrying out of the reaction, one can prepare, mainly, the mono-, di- and trimethacrylic oligoesters. On the basis of epoxy diane ED-20 and synthesized polyoxychloropropylenepoxymethacrylate oligoesters as modifiers there have been prepared the self-extinction compositions, which after curing by N, N1–diaminodiphenylsulfone possess higher physical-mechanical, adhesion and heat-physical properties.

Keywords polyoxychloropropylenetriepoxide, ED-20, diaminodiphenylsulfone, methacrylic acid, epoxymethacrylate, methacrylate oligoesters, self-extinction compositions.

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Influence of Y2O3 on the structure of Y2O3-doped BaTiO3 powder and ceramics

AbstractBarium titanate (BaTiO3) doped with rare-earth elements (REE) is used as dielectric in the manufacture of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). The most common REE oxide employed as dopant for this application is Y2O3. The behavior of the Y3+ in the BaTiO3 structure depends on its concentration and the sintering conditions, among other factors, which can induce the formation of secondary phases that are a potential cause a detriment to the electrical properties of BaTiO3. The purpose of this work is to perform a phase characterization of BaTiO3 doped with different concentrations of Y2O3, validating its possible contribution to the formation of secondary phases. The role of Y2O3 was evaluated on two kinds of raw materials. The first one is pure BaTiO3 (< 100 ppm Y) and the second kind is a commercial formulation designed for MLCCs known as X7R (-55°C and 125°C, 15% tolerance), which among other elements, already contained 1 wt% of Y2O3. High concentrations of Y2O3 (1% up to 20 wt%) were used aiming to promote structural changes, and even the formation of secondary phases in amounts suitable to be detected by X-ray diffraction. Heat treatment of powder and sintering of ceramics (powder compacted at 2 MPa) were conducted in air (1310°C in air for 3 h, two steps: 1350°C then 1150°C 15 h). A phase transition from tetragonal to a mixture of tetragonal and cubic was observed as Y2O3 concentration increases in the thermally treated powder and in the corresponding ceramics. Commercially formulated powder showed higher densification than pure BaTiO3, and produced cubic structure at higher Y2O3concentrations. The phase Ba6Ti17O40is detected in the 20 wt% Y2O3-doped sample.

KeywordsBaTiO3, doping, Y2O3.

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Determination of Radio Frequency Attenuation Signals of Ajilete FM (92.1MHz) and Compared with Existing Friis Formula, along Gambari-Oyo Road, Nigeria

Abstract This work measured experimentally, and calculated theoretically using the existing Friis Fomula, the Attenuation of 92.1 MHz (Ajilete FM) Signals along Gambari(Lat 8o291N; Long 4o291) – Oyo-Road(Lat 7o501N; Long 3o561E), Oyo State Nigeria. The two results were compared. The experimental Measurement campaign was achieved by using an appropriate design dipole antenna, well matched to (810 GSP Analyser), to determine the attenuation. The calculated results correlated very well with the measurements (Correlation Coefficient Value R2=1). But, they are not accurate when compared with the measurements (Chi- square values equal zero for received power, measured attenuation). The inaccuracies of the results for the existing formula with the measurements may be due to hills, valleys, trees and bends along the links. Hence the accuracy of the model used can only be effectively confirmed in areas free of the obstacles mentioned above. By applying LEAST SQUARE fit method to the experimental measured data, the analytical models, P(x)= 0.0154x2-1.3575x-38.7620 and A(x)= 0132x2 -1.2464x-104.8487, in the form of polynomial of degree two, were obtained respectively for received power and measured attenuation. The analytical model obtained is therefore recommended for use in an area characterised with bends, valleys, hills and trees, since the model has taken into consideration all these factors. In addition, repeater stations should be installed for effective transmission and for wider coverage in forested and valley areas. Moreover, transmitter of higher value like ten kilowatts should be employed for long distance transmission.

Keywords Attenuation, Dipole, transmitter, model polynomial, Friis Fomula.

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Kinetics of Ethyl Ester Production from Soybean and Sunflower Oils Catalyzed by Sodium Ethoxide

Abstract—The present paper reports the kinetics of soybean and sunflower oils’ ethanolysis. The transesterification reaction was carried out using a molar ratio of ethanol to oil of 9:1 and 1.0 wt% of sodium ethoxide as catalyst under stirring of 400 rpm. The reactions were performed in a stirred batch reactor at three different temperatures (308.15, 323.15 and 338.15 K) over a period of 120 min. The concentration of compounds was analyzed by High-Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC). The kinetic model assumed that ethanolysis occurs in a sequence of three reversible steps with the production of di- and monoacylglycerols as intermediate components. Based on the modeling approach it was possible to determine the rate constants of reaction and activation energies for the transesterification process of soybean and sunflower oils. Despite the phase splitting, no mass transfer control was observed and the proposed mathematical model fitted well the experimental data.

Keywords: Ethanol, ethylic biodiesel, kinetics, soybean oil, sunflower oil.

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Effect of different sulfur content in Natural Rubber mixtures on their thermo-mechanical and surface properties

Abstract In this study, a field experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different levels of sulfur on natural rubbers mixtures. Vulcanization is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur other equivalent curatives with accelerators. These additives modify the polymer by forming cross-links (bridges) between individual polymer chains. Vulcanized materials are less sticky and have superior mechanical properties. The results indicated that the application of sulfur -as a vulcanasing agent-had significant effect on mechanical (Shore A hardness test), thermal (DSC calorimetry) and surface-optical properties (SEM microscopy) of mixtures.

Keywords vulcanization, sulfur, natural rubber, additives, cross-links.

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Adhesion characterization of SiO2 thin films evaporated onto a polymeric substrate

Abstract To ensure good adhesion between a 200 nm thick silicon dioxide layer and a 4.5 μm thick hardcoat polymeric coating, a better understanding of mechanisms of adhesion at this interface is needed. To reach this purpose, focus is placed on two axes: characterizing mechanical properties of materials composing the system and in parallel, finding an applicable and effective method to quantify adhesion. Small dimension of SiO2 thin film makes it challenging to accurately characterize it. Hence the use of both nano-indentation and AFM to attempt assessment of SiO2 thin film elastic modulus Ef; taking into account limitations and uncertainty associated with each technique. Elastic modulus of SiO2 thin film determined by nano-indentation is roughly 50 GPa on a wafer substrate and 15 GPa on a lens substrate. As for AFM, modulus measured is approximately 56 GPa on a wafer substrate and 22 GPa on a lens substrate. This highlights significant influence of substrate for both techniques. Impact on mechanical properties between SiO2 thin films under different intrinsic stresses was also investigated. Results suggest that higher density of SiO2 thin film leads to higher elastic modulus.

To quantify adhesion, micro-tensile and micro-compression tests were performed. Micro-tensile experiments give ultimate shear strengths of hardcoat-substrate interface ranging from 9 to 14 MPa. Values of energy release rates of SiO2 / Hardcoat, range from 0.1 J/m² to 0.5 J/m², depending on moduli values found on wafer or lens substrate.

Keywords Adhesion, mechanical properties, oxide thin film, polymer substrate.

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Friday, 2 February 2018

Engineering Journal: January 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-1, January 2018 with AD Publications

Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Bed Level Variation around Vertical Wall Bridge Abutments

Abstract—An accurate prediction of bed level variation and especially of the mechanism of local scour hole development around bridge abutments is of paramount importance, in river engineering, for a safe design of the construction. In the present research work, a two-dimensional, explicit, finite-volume numerical algorithm, which combines the hydrodynamic equations of viscous, unsteady, free-surface flow in rivers with the continuity equation for the conservation of sediment mass is used to simulate scour depth variation in the region of vertical wall abutments. The capabilities of the applied numerical model are demonstrated by comparing the computed results with available measurements of bed formation in the region of three orthogonal abutments, with different widths, normal to the flow direction. All the experimental results were conducted in a laboratory flume in Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly and scouring depths were obtained in the vicinity of each construction, for different inflow discharges and flow duration. Numerical simulation results of the maximum scour depth and of the developed scour whole area are satisfactorily compared with the experimental measurements. Comparisons show the accuracy and the validity of the applied two dimensional, movable bed numerical techniques.

KeywordsAbutment, Local scour, Two-dimensional sediment transport model.

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Material characterisation and parameter effects on bulk solid dissolution rate of paracetamol in a stirred tank vessel using an in situ UV-ATR probe

Abstract— The progress from batch to continuous manufacture of pharmaceuticals has highlighted the requirement for dosing solid feed material directly, efficiently and accurately into continuous flow systems. Solids are currently dissolved in batch vessels before feeding into a flow system. This study focuses on gaining scientific understanding on rate kinetics of solid dissolution and parameters affecting solid dosing in current batch systems as a starting point; the knowledge gained will inform future continuous solid dosing work. Paracetamol was the model compound and the mixtures of water/ IPA the solvent systems. An in situ UV spectrometer was used to quantify the concentration of solute in solution during dissolution. In this paper, we present the dissolution kinetics results from a parametric study of effects of temperature, solvents, mixing and particle sizes on dissolution characteristics in a stirred tank vessel. The dissolution profiles from our system are similar to that of published work, with the fastest kinetics for the micronised particles, albeit problematic when dosing as a single shot. Dissolution rate is increased with increasing temperature, solvent content (solubility), mixing intensity and decreasing particle size.

Keywords— Dissolution, Solid dosing, Continuous Work up, Batch manufacturing, Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacture, Stirred tank reactor, UV Spectrometry.

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Investigation of thermodynamic Properties Composition of Al-Fe-Ni system

Abstract Thermodynamic properties of the Al-Fe–Ni system and its constituent’s binary systems in a wide temperature range of 1873-1973 K and the whole range of concentrations have been studied using the FactSage.

Keywords Al-Fe-Ni, FactSage, thermodynamic properties.

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Degradation on 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol by cold plasma technology

Abstract Cold plasma exhibits many advantages in environmental treatment without additive reagent required. The 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol (TNP) might be degraded with high efficiency using cold plasma. The main factors influencing the TNP degradation have been studied. The kinetics of the TNP process proposed fits to the pseudo- first order reaction. The overall reaction rate expression was established to be - r= 0.024CTNP at low TNP concentration

Keywords Cold plasma, 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol, degradation by plasma.

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Characterization of Copper-Based Shape Memory Alloy with Zinc and Aluminum

Abstract Copper-based shape memory alloy with zinc and aluminum was manufactured, plastically deformed, heat treated and characterized in terms of physico-mechanical, structural and micro-structural investigation. Typical martensitic microstructure with twins is revealed by optical and electron microscopy. The presence of the martensite in the structure was further confirmed through X-ray diffraction. Toughness and hardness of the alloy are investigated too. Optimal properties are obtained for the condition of the alloy that was subjected to heat treatment according to the following scheme: annealing at 850 0C and 900 0C (10 min) + quenched in water + aging at 400 0C (1 hour) + air cooling.

Keywords shape memory, SEM-EDS, hardness, copper-zinc-aluminum alloy, martensitic structure.

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Simultaneous analysis of nitro compounds by Voltammetric method combined with the partial least squares (PLS) and the principal component regression (PCR)

Abstract Nitro aromatic compounds exhibit a strong electrochemical behavior on hanging mercury drop electrodes (HMDE). The ability to simultaneously determine 6 nitro compounds including nitrobenzene (NB), 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 3-nitrophenol (3-NP), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), 2,4- dinitrophenol (DNP) and trinitrophenol (TNT) in the same samples was investigated by differential pulse Voltammetry. The method is based on the electrochemical process at HMDE in acetate buffer of pH 4.6. It was found that peak potentials of voltammetric reduction waves of NB, 2-NP, 3-NP and 4-NP appeared at - 0.332, - 0.281, - 0.311 and - 0.387 V respectively. Under the same conditions there are three peak potentials at -0.131, - 0.227, - 0.332 V for TNT and two peaks at tại - 0.221, - 0.332V for DNT. The peaks of these compounds are very close together. Due to the serious overlapping of Voltammetric peaks of these compounds in the mixtures, so that by a conventional Voltammetry it not possible to individually determine each compound. In this study, linear multivariate regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR) was used to resolve the overlapped Voltammograms. The obtained relative standard errors of both methods are within ± 10%. The PLS (10.8% RSEt) results in data better than PCR (11.8% RSEt).

Keywords Nitrobenzene, 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, Dinitrotoluene, Trinitrotoluene.

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MATLAB-Based Standalone Application for Estimation of Growth and Mortality Parameters of Fish

Abstract The exploited fish populations and the fishery dependent on them require regular monitoring and periodical stock assessment. The resource evaluation is crucial for definition of appropriate management strategies for rational exploitation and long-term sustainable development of the exploited stocks.

The determination of the current state of a given stock is directly related to analysis of historical and present data concerning specific stock parameters which indicates the current status of the stock and suggests relevant definition of healthy exploitation levels. Such key stock parameters are growth and mortality rates, abundance indices, carrying capacity, maturity and reproduction, catch composition and recruitment [1,3,4,6,13,14].

The present article introduces a program system - MATLAB-based standalone application specifically developed to facilitate length-weight relationship of fish analysis outcome, growth and mortality parameters estimates and their confidence limits, normality tests of length-weight-frequency sample data, used in analysis. The proposed system incorporates statistical analysis of the overall significance of the mathematical models and results delivered, as well as methodology to overcome added computational errors in numerical analysis.

Keywords fish stocks, growth and mortality parameters, MATLAB programming environment, standalone application, stock assessment.

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Comparison of K-E Turbulence Model Wall Functions Applied on a T-Junction Channel Flow

AbstractThe flow acting in a T-junction channel is present in several industrial applications, such as air conditioning systems, water cooling circuits, gas exhaust systems and others. In order to numerically simulate this case, the Average Reynolds Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation is used for a two-dimensional stationary flow using the k-ε model together with wall functions such as standard wall function, Enhanced and Menter-Lechner wall treatments. The moment ratio used is = 2 and the Reynolds number at the inlet of the flow parallel to the channel is Re = 15,000. The results were compared with the literature data using Large Scale Simulation (LES). The results obtained for k-ε model Enhanced and Menter-Lechner wall treatment were satisfactory and close to that found by the LES simulation, however, results obtained from k-ε model standard wall function presented large deviation to literature, mainly in the boundary layer and K production profiles. In general, the results presented small distortions for the profiles of turbulent kinetic energy production near walls, however, they illustrate in an analogous manner to the literature the production of turbulent kinetic energy K concentrated in the shear layers between flows. The main results analyzed in this paper are the length of the recirculation bubble, boundary layer profile, mean velocity magnitude and kinetic energy production k.

KeywordsTurbulence, RANS, k-ε, T-Junction, Channel, LES.

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Design of RF Transmitter with high speed for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) using 8-Core DDS System of FPGA

Abstract An overall goal of the research is to investigate a new approach to the MRI RF Transmitter. Design a high-speed MRI RF transmitter. The goal is to explore the potential of a built-in DDS core of an FPGA chip to generate a dual-channel output at a 1 GHz sampling frequency of each. This output will be processed by a dual-input DAC chip for a total of 2 GHz sampling rate. The entire system should be able to generate the output signal ranging from 100 kHz to 750MHz. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to study and to investigate the structures of these features to see how they could be utilized as a main core in a pulse generator

According to the datasheet provided by Xilinx, a DDS core has a single sine or/ and cosine output signal. The DDS core can operate at a maximum clock of 250 MHz. A 250 MHz clock speed is insufficient to generate outputs at 1 GHz sampling frequency. Consequently, the proposed custom DDS system is expected to quadruple the clock speed of the system by implementing multiple DDS core modules within the system.

Keywords Direct Digital Synthesis.

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Monday, 1 January 2018

Engineering Journal: December 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-11, November 2017 with AD Publications

Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Piezoelectric Thermal Fire Annunciator

Abstract The paper presents theoretical and experimental studies on testing the possibility of using piezoelectric converters as a signaling device in fire protection systems. The advantage of this process is the absence of the necessity to connect electrical lines, which in most cases they themselves cause fire.

Keywords Piezoelectric converter, transformer mode, depolarization, signaling device, fire security.

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Language and Didactic potential of Ukrainian for Specific Purposes Teaching forms in Developing Future Navigators’ Text Formation Competency

Abstract The article is devoted to determining the peculiarities of the organization of future navigators ’text formation competence development during various forms of training on the basis of the analysis of scientific literature on language teaching methods. On the basis of analysis, generalization and systematization of scientific sources, we elucidated the forms of organization of language teaching (lectures, practical classes, seminars), which enable to improve the future navigators’ ability to summarize, review and an notate texts that ensures the development of their textual competency. The conclusions drawn in the article can be used during theoretical justification and practical development of a methodology for developing future navigators’ and marine educational institution scadets (students)’ text formation competency.

Keywords language teaching material, methods of development, teaching methods, text formation competency, lecture, practical class, seminar, speech skills, future navigators.

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Research of image registration algorithm based on template matching

AbstractIn order to provide support for image registration, the application of template matching in image registration is studied. This paper sums up four types, introduces the principle of each algorithm, and compares their advantages and disadvantages through simulation experiments: Based on the gray information of the algorithm is simple and real-time, but for complex image and low gray contrast images, cross matching results; mathematical transform based on the complex, large amount of calculation; mutual information does not require preprocessing, registration effect is good, is the research hotspot at present, but ignores the spatial relationship between pixels.

KeywordsImage registration, Image matching, Template matching.

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Role of the Cluster Analysis in Logfacies and Depositional Environments Recognition from Well Log Response for Mishrif Formation in Southeast Iraq.

AbstractThe recognition of depositional environments from well logs is based on the principle that well log responses are related to changes in thickness, texture, grain size and lithology along the well path. The variations in sedimentary rock response are due to reservoir heterogeneity. A similar set of log responses that characterizes a specific rock type and allows it to be distinguished from others, have defined an electrofacies.Cluster analysis includes a broad suite of techniques designed to find groups of similar items within a data set. Partitioning methods divide the data set into a number of groups predesignated by the user. Hierarchical cluster methods produce a hierarchy of clusters from small clusters of very similar items to large clusters that include more dissimilar items. Hierarchical methods usually produce a graphical output known as a dendrogram or tree that shows this hierarchical clustering structure.The method has tested on a 398.5 m thick interval of Carbonate deposits in a vertical well from Amara field, located in southeast Iraq. Modal data have collected from both core and cutting samples. Cluster analysis and electrofacies classification have performed using advance interpretation in Interactive Petrophysics software version 3.6.Carbonate microfacies and marine depositional environments studied for Mishrif Formation depended on the available thin sections though they were not enough to cover all the depositional environments of Mishrif Formation. Therefore, previous studies and well logs were also depended in this study.Correlation of determined logfacies with those defined from cores and cuttings is fundamental to check the reliability of used methods and to define a meaningful cut off level for wells from which no cores or cuttings are available.

KeywordsCluster analysis, Mishrif Formation, Logfacies, Well Logs response.

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Experimental study on treatment of municipal sludge by electro-osmotic method

Abstract The main purpose of the electro-osmosis method in engineering is to reinforce the foundation. The electro-osmosis method has a lot of research on the foundation reinforcement. The most application is the experiment of electro-osmotic combined loading. The experiment on treatment of heavy metals in municipal sludge by electro-osmotic method is still in a blank state. In this paper, the changes of basic physical properties of sludge before and after electro-osmosis and the changes of heavy metals in sludge before and after electro-osmosis were analyzed. The feasibility of electro-osmotic treatment of heavy metals in sludge was verified by comparing the content of heavy metals in the sludge with the standard value of soil environmental quality after electro-osmotic treatment.

Keywords Electro-osmotic method, Physical properties of sludge, Heavy metal, Experimental research.

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Experimental Investigation of Thermal Performance of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Systems

Abstract The phenomenon of photovoltaic systems is based on the principals of semiconductor physics and they operate with a semiconductor element, such as silicon. Photovoltaic cells can generate electricity only when they receive a certain amount of photon energy and thus they convert only a fraction of the solar irradiance, which is received from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum, into electrical energy. The remaining radiation is stored as heat in photovoltaic systems, causing some irreversibilities in the system.

In general, the experimental setup, the accumulated heat, which reduces the efficiency of the photovoltaic systems, is aimed to be removed from the system and turned it into useful energy. By employing some heat transfer enhancement systems, the photovoltaic cell temperature decreased to the range of 40-60 °C, the temperature range at which a photovoltaic system runs optimal, whereby an approximate improvement of 20% in electrical efficiency of the PV system achieved. Aluminum and copper cylindrical fins or some refrigerant fluids used as heat transfer enhancement elements in the systems.

In this operating conditions, the electrical efficiency of the system decreases to around 6.5% down from the nominal electrical efficiency of 12% under optimal operating temperature. The fin surface temperature and ambient temperature of the control volume decreased in direct proportion to the air velocity. At about 5 m/s air velocity, the fins bodies and ambient air were cooled down by about 50%, accordingly, the electrical efficiency decreased from 12% to only 9.5%.

Keywords Thermal efficiency of PV cells; electrical efficiency; copper fins; aluminum fins; pv/t systems.

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Material structure particularity of polyethylene-terephtalate (PET) and poly-lactic (PLA)

Abstract - The huge amount of synthetic plastics are used in the packaging area, especially in food packaging, because there have great effects in the environmental and alternative, more ecologic materials are being required. Poly-lactic acid (PLA) is one of the most significant biodegradable thermoplastic polymers. It is compostable and made it from renewable sources. The mechanical and optical property of PLA is very similar to the Polyethylene, but is more fragile, less heat-resistant and offer low resistance to oxygen permeation. In this work, two commercial PLA foils and one commercial PET foil properties were examined. The correlations between the mechanical, thermal and barrier properties were analyzed. From these measurements we can understand the PLA is a usable for packing applications, especially in the sweet manufacturing. Films were studied by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry and thermally simulated discharge analysis.

Keywords— PET, PLA, stretching, mechanical properties, TSD, DSC, crystal structure.

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The Impact of Different Electric Connection Types in Thermoelectric Generator Modules on Power

Abstract Recently, there is a need for increase in energy efficiency and more energy due to increase in the human population and increased production with the development of technology. This pushes scientists to search for alternative energy. In this respect, interest in renewable energy sources is increasing day by day due to the fact that it is clean energy. Thermal sources have some advantages when compared to other sources, which is why they are at the forefront of renewable energy sources. Today we make use of thermal sources in many fields ranging from greenhouse, fish breeding, thermal facilities, city heating and electricity production. When generating electricity from geothermal electricity conventional methods such as steam turbine-generator cycle are used as well as innovative methods such as semiconductor thermoelectric modules. In the light of developing technologies and researches, we know that we can produce electricity using the heat that the thermal energy gives out while it is being transmitted from one place to another. In this study, in order to shed light on the technological developments in electricity generation using thermal sources, Thermoelectric Coolers (TEC) which convert heat energy into electricity have been used. Two different TEC1-12706 and TEC1-12710 materials from the market were used. The effects of the serial and parallel connections of these materials on the generated power have been observed. Following the experimental studies, the reactions of the different connection types of the TECs to the load were examined. It was observed that the power values obtained from different TECs used varied according to the connection types, both loaded and unloaded.

Keywords Electricity generation, Output power and efficiency, Renewable energy sources, Thermoelectric generator, Thermoelectric modules.

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Categorizing software vulnerabilities using overlapping self-organizing map

Abstract Software has always been vulnerable to various vulnerably issues. Increasing the number of vulnerabilities and their complexity in the software area has made it more important to categorize them. In this research work, by selecting the MoSCoW prioritization method and by combining it with the SOM self-organizing mapping algorithm, we present a new categorization for the frequent software vulnerabilities. We implemented the proposed method in MATLAB using the relevant tool boxes. The experimental results were evaluated using in-class and out-of-class distance measurements. Classification of software vulnerabilities using OSOM algorithms gives us better results than conventional clustering methods. It can be inferred that the classification of software vulnerabilities is of particular importance in improving the security of a software application. The proposed algorithm can provide an appropriate categorization by taking advantage from the existing overlapping feature.

Keywords Overlapping, Overlapping Self-Organizing Map, Software Vulnerability, Vulnerability Categorization.

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Engineering Journal: May 2018

Analysis on the junction point’s stress located at considering fluid-solid coupling effects for support arm under different wall thickness ...