Wednesday, 31 March 2021

Engineering Journal: March 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-3, March 2021 with AD Publications

Energy Savings in Renewable Integrated Distribution Network and Impact of Storage Devices

Abstract Energy loss reduction is a significant issue for Renewable energy planning in the Distribution system. The high penetration of wind and solar became the primary task for the optimal size of energy storage to support the power mismatch. In the present work, energy savings have been obtained in a renewable integrated distribution system. The impact of the energy storage device has also been evaluated. The main contribution of this paper is:

  • Optimal location of DGs and battery are obtained by solving single and multi-objective functions.
  • Determination of DG and battery size for loss savings.
  • Impact of battery energy storage device on loss profile and total cost of the system.

The simulation results of the test system have been compared with other existing results.

Keywords— Radial distribution system, Battery energy storage device, Energy Loss minimisation, optimal sizing and siting, Renewable Energy sources.

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Metal-Containing Nanocomposites on the Basis of Isotactic Polypropylene and Butadiene-Nitrile Rubber

Abstract One and two-step methods for the synthesis of saccharin-6-carboxylic acid triglyceride were studied. The reesterification reactions of 2-hydroxypropyl-1,3-bis-ethersulfoimide of this acid and glycerol with some aliphatic saccharin-6-carboxylic acid esters were carried out. The resulting products are characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. It was found that when using a two-step method, the end product is obtained with the highest yield (85%). The influence of additions of nanofillers (NF) containing nanoparticles of the copper oxide, stabilized by polymer matrix of maleinized polyethylene of high pressure (MPE), obtained by mechano-chemical method on peculiarities of structure and properties of metal-containing nanocomposites on the basis of isotactic polypropylene (PP) and butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNR) by methods of X-ray phase (RPhA) and differential-thermal analyses (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been investigated. It has been revealed an improvement of the strength, deformation and rheological indices and also the thermal-oxidative stability of the obtained nanocomposites, which has been apparently connected with the synergetic effect of the interaction of the zinc-containing nanoparticles with maleic groups of MPE. It has been shown that the nanocomposites on the basis of PP/BNR/HF can be processed both by pressing method and by methods of casting under pressure and extrusion, which expands the sphere of its application.

Keywords butadiene-nitrile rubber, DTA, isotactic polypropylene, metal-containing nanocomposites, nanoparticles of zinc oxide, RPhA, SEM – analyses, thermal properties.

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Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Crude Glycerol by Purple Non-Sulfur Photo Fermentative Bacteria, Rhodobacter Meghalophilus

Abstract As the world is progressing faster with new technological innovations, the need and demand for energy is also constantly expanding. In the light of conventionally available fossil fuel reserves being exhausted extensively that has left a very deep scar on environment, the urge for alternative environment friendly energy source is the need for energy sustenance. Hydrogen gas is distinct for its high calorific value, clean fuel characteristic and suitability for wide applications. Chemical method likes steam reforming, coal gasification are established technologies available for industrial hydrogen needs but are high in terms of cost and energy input. Biological methods are promising routes for hydrogen gas generation as they can be cost effective and use a variety of organic materials as substrates. The current study is focused on generation of hydrogen gas using Rhodobacter meghalophilus, a mesophilic, and purple non sulfur photo fermentative bacteria. Crude glycerol, byproduct from biodiesel plants is used as carbon substrate because of its rich organic content. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of process parameters viz. volume of crude glycerol, pH and light intensity on generation of hydrogen gas. Crude glycerol in the media was varied from 5 – 15% (v/v), pH between 5.8 – 8.3 and the light intensity at 500, 1000 and 2000 Lx respectively. At 15% (v/v) of crude glycerol, pH of 7.8 and 1000 Lx, the volume of hydrogen gas obtained was 490 ml/L with the substrate to hydrogen gas conversion rate as 0.012 mol/ mol of crude glycerol with light conversion efficiency of 1.16%.

Keywords— Bio hydrogen, Clean energy, Crude glycerol, Photo fermentation, Rhodobacter meghalophilus.

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Engineering Journal: February 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-2, February 2021 with AD Publications

Direct analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS of 8 purified fractions from ethanolic extracts of Talipariti elatum’s flowers in Martinica

Abstract From ethanolic extracts of the flowers of Talipariti elatum (Sw.) eigth different samples were isolated, purified and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS to determine the chemical constituents that they content. Each sample was separated and reinjected to get the most possible information about the chemical compounds that they posses. After an exhaustive analysis 8 different chemical components were tentatively identified according to their MS and literature data. Two compounds until remain unknown.

Keywords— Talipariti elatum, ethanolic extract, flowers, UHPLC-MS, chemical components.

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Performance Evaluation of Bentonite Muds Formulated using Cassava Starch Treated with Preservatives

Abstract Extensive works have been done on the subject matter of local sourcing of drilling fluid additives to reduce our importation burdens especially in this era of dwindling oil fortunes. This local sourcing will bolster industrialization and reduce unemployment in a vast economy like Nigeria. The results of the previous studies have shown promising potentials which are in tandem with our local content mandate of the government. Cassava starch has been identified as one of these additives and our ranking as the world largest producer of cassava remains instructive. Currently, all the starch used in the oil and gas industry is imported. The major constraint to the use of cassava starch is their extreme susceptibility to post-harvest degradation. This work, therefore, is an attempt to address this problem of stability by the application of appropriate preservatives without prejudice to the rheological properties of the mud. In carrying out this study at temperatures of 80, 120, 150 and 1900F, three cassava starch cultivars TMS 92/0057, TMS 98/0581 and TMS 96/1632 and four common preservatives in the food industry; the salts of benzoate, propionate, sorbate and metabisulphite were used in the bentonite mud formulations. The result showed that out of the sixty-one mud formulations, only five of them adequately met the API rheological properties threshold. These five muds exhibited properties that compare favourably to the imported starch sample. This stabilized product holds much promise as a substitute to the imported starch for use in water-based drilling mud formulations for the Nigerian oil industry.

Keywords— Cassava starch, Drilling fluids, Rheology, Preservatives.

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Tuesday, 30 March 2021

Engineering Journal: January 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-1, January 2021 with AD Publications

Non-typical designs of Polypropylene Capillary Heat Exchangers

Abstract— The present article describes a heat exchanger with transparent (smooth) fibres with an atypical body shape and an atypical arrangement of polypropylene capillaries inside. The exchanger cross-section was of a square shape. This type of exchanger was subjected to the investigation of the impact of the fibre arrangement on the overall heat transfer coefficient and behaviour of fibres during the experiment. The exchanger was examined in the counter flow arrangement. The exchanger with 1,400 transparent fibres with the outer diameter of 0.275 mm was examined at the secondary fluid flow rate of 150 l·h-1 to identify the overall heat transfer coefficient k which amounted to 520 W·m-2·K-1. When compared to an exchanger with identical parameters of fibres placed inside a cylindrical exchanger body, a decrease in the overall heat transfer coefficient represented 14%. At the flow rate of 200 l·h-1, the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient identified experimentally was 632 W∙m-2·K-1. When compared to cylindrical exchanger with comparable fibre parameters, the value was 33% lower.

Keywords— Heat exchangers, polypropylene fibres, typical designs Polypropylene Capillary.

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Voltage Control in Distribution System with Reactive Power Dispatch

Abstract Due to large resistance and lower reactance of lines, the voltage control and power loss became a crucial issue. The flat voltage profile, is therefore expected to distribution system at each node, minimum power loss, the maximum cost of saving and maximum efficiency. In this context, to find the size and location of compensating devices for the reactive power and voltage control devices became the essential need. In this paper, the multi-objective optimisation problem is solved for the sizing and location of reactive power compensating devices in the distribution system. The main contributions of the proposed work are

  • To address the hybrid algorithm to determine the location and size of Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM).
  • The power loss and voltage deviation are minimised.
  • The impact of D-STATCOM with minimum voltage growth is analysed.

The results are verified, tabulated and compared with other methods. The IEEE-33 bus test system has been taken for the analysis.

Keywords— Power loss minimisation, voltage deviation, D-STATCOM.

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Tuesday, 12 January 2021

Engineering Journal: December 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-12, December 2020 with AD Publications

Detection of Xyelene (C8H10) by Pd-gate MOS Sensor

Abstract— A sensor based on Pd/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor was fabricated on p type <100> (1-6 ΩCm) Si with thermal oxide layer of thickness about 200 A˚. The sensor showed sensitivity to Xyelene (C8H10 ) vapour and was characterized at Xyelene concentrations ranging from (500ppm-16,000ppm) at different operating temperatures (room temperature,70˚C and 120˚C), in air. It was found that sensitivity of the sensor was maximum at an operating temperature of 70˚C.

Keywords— MOS (metal-oxide- semiconductor) structure, gas sensor, Palladium (Pd), sensitivity, C-V and G-V characteristics.

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Trimaran Fishing Vessel Development: A Review of Vessel Power, Safety and Comfort Needs

Abstract In general, fishing fleets operating in Maluku waters and managed by local entrepreneurs consist of mono hull fishing vessels (such as purse seines, etc.) and trimaran in chart form. These two types of fishing fleets have been known to the people of Maluku for a long time. However, these two types each have their advantages and limitations, for example, mono hull fishing boats have limited deck space and poor transverse stability, especially in bumpy sea conditions in extreme weather. While the trimaran type has better deck space and transverse stability than a mono hull ship, but because it is still in chart form, it has limited space. The shortcomings that exist in these two types of fishing fleets are coupled with the expertise or experience of fishermen which has minimal impact on the decrease in the catch and what is worse can be fatal to accidents and the sinking of ship arma. To increase the catch of fisheries, it is necessary to have a means and a reliable fishing fleet. This study aims to examine the development of trimaran fishing vessels in terms of the study of energy needs, safety and comfort for the captain and crew during fishing operations. The initial stage of this research begins with data analysis and the principal size of mono hull fishing vessels operating in Maluku waters, from this data the hull form of a trimaran vessel is designed with an area similar to or close to the area of ​​a monohull fishing vessel operating in Maluku waters using maxsurf, then analyzed the calculation of obstacles. ship and stability to assess the energy needs and safety and comfort of the ship during fishing operations. This research is focused on analyzing the energy requirements, safety and comfort of the trimaran fishing vessel. The final result of this research is expected to be used as an alternative fishing boat to increase the fish catch of fishermen which will have an impact on the income and welfare of fishermen.

Keywords Trimaran Fishing Vessel, Resistance, Power, Safety, Comfort.

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Effect of Citric Acid on Thickeners Used in Products for People Suffering Oropharyngeal Dysphagia

AbstractDysphagia is a digestive disorder recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) characterized by the difficulty in forming or moving the bolus from the mouth to the oesophagus that can cause the passage of food into the respiratory tract. Foods for people with dysphagia are prepared with products that modify viscosity to make them safer when ingested. The aim of this work is to establish the interaction between citric acid, widely used by the food industry, with different thickeners, both first and second range, in order to check whether they fulfil the functions for which they have been designed. The time stability and viscosity as a function of the hydration time of six thickeners and their behavior in the temperature range between 25 and 50 °C were determined. Thickener concentrations up to a maximum of 6% were used in combination with 3acid concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2%). In distilled water, the sedimentation of first range thickeners and the gelification of second range thickeners were checked, as well as the change from non-Newtonian to Newtonian behaviour after the hydrolysis process in both types of thickeners. In the presence of citric acid, the behaviour of both types of thickeners was analogous. Second range thickeners have been found to be much safer than first range thickeners in modifying the viscosity of liquids for people with dysphagia due to the fact that they do not sediment.

Keywordscitric acid, dysphagia, gum, starch, thickener, viscosity.

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Impact of France Nuclear Tests on typhoons and Earthquakes in November 1990

Abstract The paper investigates the relationship between the development of typhoons and strong earthquakes after the France nuclear tests (NT) in November 1990. It is shown that after the NT acoustic impact on the tropical disturbance of the Pacific Ocean cloud structures self-organized into a system of three interacting category 5 typhoons. The dependence of the earthquakes M> 4.6 and the intensity of these typhoons as well as Typhoon Mike which passed earlier through the Philippine Islands are considered. Areas were found where the impact of typhoons led to earthquakes M> 5.4 of small lithospheric plates.

Keywords Pacific, nuclear test, typhoon, earthquake.

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Engineering Journal: November 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-11, November 2020 with AD Publications

Hydrogen Production System using a Plasma Reactor

Abstract The present article deals with a potential to interconnect the plasma technology of waste processing with the technology of hydrogen separation from syngas using metal hydride alloys. It also describes key components of the system used for syngas cleaning and their succession.

Keywords hydrogen, plasma reaktor, waste treatment, gasification.

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Vehicle Re-Identification Based on the Authenticity of Orthographic Projection

Abstract Vehicle re-identification is still a problem do not receive much attention in the multimedia and vision communities. Since most existing approaches mainly focus on the overall vehicle appearance for re-identification and do not consider the visual appearance changes of sides of vehicle, called local deformation. In this paper, we propose a vehicle re-identification method based on the authenticity of orthographic projection, in which three sides of vehicle are extracted, and the local deformation is explicitly minimized by scaling each pair of corresponding side to uniform size before computing similarity. To compute the similarity between two vehicle images, we 1) construct 3D bounding boxes around the vehicles, 2) extract sub-images of the three sides of each vehicle like a three-view drawing, 3) compute the similarity between each pair of corresponding side sub-images, and 4) use their weighted mean as the final measure of similarity. After computing the similarity between the query vehicle and all candidate vehicles, we rank these similarities and take the vehicle with the maximum similarity as the best match. To evaluate this approach, we use a dataset with 240 pairs of vehicle images extracted from surveillance videos shot at seven locations in different directions. The experimental results show that our proposed method can achieve 75.83% matching accuracy for the top-1 ranked vehicle and 91.25% accuracy for the top-5 vehicles.

Keywords 3D bounding boxes, local deformation, vehicle re-identification, weighted mean.

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Design and Strength Analysis of the Base for Robot Baxter

Abstract This paper discusses the issue of the subsystem of mobility and solves the design of the lower mobile base for a robot called Baxter. In this paper you can see all the models and parts that are used in construction of mobile base, from which the initial model of the base is created. After making a model of a base, we were putting a load (represents the weight of a robot) on it so we could determine what kind of relative deformations and stresses are created by using finite element method analysis FEM. Later we optimised the base (for example we were changing the length dimensions of some parts), so we could get better results from FEM analysis and also, we wanted the optimised base to acquire similar dimensions and weight as a commercial base. At the end we created technical sheets of all the parts of the base. These technical sheets were later sent to university SIGMA in Clermont-Ferrand (France), from which they constructed mobile base for robot Baxter. FEM analysis was done in program called NX Siemens and models of individual parts were modelled in CATIA V5.

Keywords mobile base, subsystem of mobility, service robot, Baxter, strength analysis, finite element method.

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Engineering Journal: October 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-10, October 2020 with AD Publications

Synthesis Methods of Saccharin-6-Carboxylic Acid Triglyceride

Abstract One and two-step methods for the synthesis of saccharin-6-carboxylic acid triglyceride were studied. The reesterification reactions of 2-hydroxypropyl-1,3-bis-ethersulfoimide of this acid and glycerol with some aliphatic saccharin-6-carboxylic acid esters were carried out. The resulting products are characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. It was found that when using a two-step method, the end product is obtained with the highest yield (85%).

Keywords alkyl esters, glycerine, IR-spectra, monomer, reesterification, saccharin-6-carboxylic acid.

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The Test of Permeable by Expansion Valve in Cooling Compressor

Abstract Current article describes the HFC test, which the measure the amount of impurity in cooling compressors, which they could cause damage to them. In introduce of the article describes the process of cooling cycle in cooling equipment. In the tab. 1 are summarized the basic advantages and disadvantages of use natural based refrigerant, which are used in producing the compressors designated for equipment’s as refrigerators, air conditions, cooling rooms. In the article are describe the media, which it may occur in compressor, but their presence can may cause the problems with the operation of compressor possibly its damage. We say about media respectively the products, which they are not miscible with oil. It is water, paraffin, silicone and alkali products. Test HFC discovers and measurements the presence these components and on the basis of their quantity decides on the quality of production of refrigeration compressors. The article describes the test procedure and in the end the evaluation of the maximum value of the given incompatible respectively unwanted products.

Keywords compressor, HFC test, refrigerant, refrigeration equipment.

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Comparing Oxygen Plasma, Hydrogen Peroxide and Flame Treatments of Polyamide Tubes to Hydrophilic Coating Adhesion

Abstract Hydrophilic-coated catheters reduce the endovascular friction between the device and blood and increase the biocompatibility of catheters. This study investigated three surface treatments to improve catheter surface. Oxygen plasma, hydrogen peroxide, and flame exposure coating equipment were manufactured. Polyamide 11 (PA11) catheter surfaces were treated and the influence of exposure time for each individual technique was studied. Treated samples were characterized by goniometry, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and scratch resistance of the hydrophilic coating deposited. Oxygen plasma, hydrogen peroxide, and flame surface treatments may considerably increase the wettability and adhesion properties of polyamide 11. The flame treatment during 60 s showed significant improvement in surface properties, in which both wettability and the adhesion of the hydrophilic coating were superior in comparison to the other samples. The devices developed in these work were able to coat and improve catheter surface properties.

Keywords— Oxygen Plasma, Hydrogen Peroxide, Flame Treatments, Polyamide Tubes, Hydrophilic Coating.

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Thermal Insulation of Distribution Pipelines

Abstract In heat distribution systems, which are used to supply a heat-conveying medium to consumers, a certain amount of heat is always released to the surrounding environment. Such inevitable and undesired release of heat is referred to as heat loss. Heat loss causes that the medium flowing inside the distribution system cools down and its subsequent heating up is therefore more demanding. The consequences include higher costs of heat and hot water production not only for system operators but also for end consumers. Therefore, attention should be paid to thermal insulation when incorporated in heat distribution systems, primarily to its quality and thickness.

Keywords heat network, efficiency, heat loss, ambient temperature.

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Dietary Assessment & Evaluation of Nutritional using Image Segmentation for Mobiles: Survey

Abstract There is a great demand for easily accessible user friendly dietary self assessment and self management applications. This is because of growing concern about chronic diseases and other health problems related to cancer and obesity. So accurate diet measurement is very important. Measurement of accurate dietary and development of fully automatic estimation of nutritional intake is considered to be an open research problem. In this paper a survey on mobile telephone food record has been done. This mobile telephone food record provides an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake of an individual. The identification and quality estimation is based on obtaining images before and after consumption of meal. Image analysis is done which includes the segmentation of food items, identification of food items by its features, automatic estimation of food portion.

Keywords— dietary assessment, diet record method, image analysis, nutrient computation, volume estimation.

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Recovery of Heavy Oil from Unconventional Source (Oil Sands) with Design Steam Injection System

Abstract The use of steam ranging from 100oC to 280oC in extracting and producing oil from unconventional reservoir (oil sand) was investigated. Core samples were obtained from Edo state in Nigeria. An oil sand laboratory reservoir model was used to investigate technical feasibility of the injection of steam as an enhanced oil recovery agent for tight hydrocarbon reservoirs and the effect of temperature on the petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability of oil sand reservoir. Steam was injected into the oil sand reservoir to recover bitumen at different temperatures ranging from 100oC to 280oC. Results showed that as the temperature of the steam increased, more hydrocarbon (bitumen) was recovered due to the reduction of its viscosity and oil-water interfacial tension. The core experiment indicates that the porosity and permeability of a tight formation such as that of oil sand at ambient temperature is 0.038 and 0.007MD respectively. An increase in reservoir temperature by the injection of steam altered the petrophysical properties (porosity and permeability) of the reservoir. Samples collected and analyzed after recovery showed a decrease in porosity and an increase in the permeability of the formation. Results indicate that the viscosity of bitumen decreased with an increasing temperature. Maximum recovery of bitumen was obtained at 280oC. The injection of steam at temperature of 300oC and above, would produce more bitumen at industrial scale and could be refined and upgraded to liquid fuels to supplement the drastic reduction of the conventional oil. The results obtained from this work showed good agreement with data from existing data.

Keywords— Bitumen, Heavy oil, Oil sands, Permeability, Porosity, Steam, tight formation, Unconventional, viscosity.

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Vehicle Re-Identification Based on the Authenticity of Orthographic Projection

Abstract Vehicle re-identification is still a problem do not receive much attention in the multimedia and vision communities. Since most existing approaches mainly focus on the overall vehicle appearance for re-identification and do not consider the visual appearance changes of sides of vehicle, called local deformation. In this paper, we propose a vehicle re-identification method based on the authenticity of orthographic projection, in which three sides of vehicle are extracted, and the local deformation is explicitly minimized by scaling each pair of corresponding side to uniform size before computing similarity. To compute the similarity between two vehicle images, we 1) construct 3D bounding boxes around the vehicles, 2) extract sub-images of the three sides of each vehicle like a three-view drawing, 3) compute the similarity between each pair of corresponding side sub-images, and 4) use their weighted mean as the final measure of similarity. After computing the similarity between the query vehicle and all candidate vehicles, we rank these similarities and take the vehicle with the maximum similarity as the best match. To evaluate this approach, we use a dataset with 240 pairs of vehicle images extracted from surveillance videos shot at seven locations in different directions. The experimental results show that our proposed method can achieve 75.83% matching accuracy for the top-1 ranked vehicle and 91.25% accuracy for the top-5 vehicles.

Keywords 3D bounding boxes, local deformation, vehicle re-identification, weighted mean.

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Friday, 2 October 2020

Engineering Journal: September 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-9, September2020 with AD Publications

Autogenous Yb:YAG laser disk welding domain of AA6061-T4 aluminium alloy

Abstract The aerospace industry is developing lighter, stronger and more heat- and corrosion-resistant components to reduce manufacturing costs and fuel consumption. To achieve this goal, laser welding represents a real opportunity to replace the riveting assemblies developed in the 1920s. In this article, we present our research to obtain the weldability domain of AA6061 aluminium alloy by autogenous disk laser welding. A systematic study of the samples butt-welded by X-ray and optical microscopy allowed us to determine the defects and the dimensions of the weld beads according to the process parameters. The data analysis with the CORICO software made it possible to determine the regression models considering the welding parameters in order to avoid the appearance of defects such as melt pool collapse, lack of penetration or hot cracking. A range of weldability was defined for power values between 2000 to 2500 W, welding speeds below 4m/min and focal diameters below 170 microns.

Keywords— aluminium alloy, laser welding, weldability domain.

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Physics of Equilibrium and Non-equilibrium Deformation Processes in the Nickel Surface Layer

Abstract Based on the Hamilton’s principle, invariants are proposed to describe the processes of formation and evolution of the structure of the metal interface under friction. These invariants can be used, among other things, in the creation, evolution and destruction of nanomaterials.

Keywords— nano, submicro, micro, meso and macro levels of deformation, equilibrium and non-equilibrium deformation, invariants.

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Engineering Journal: March 2021

Energy Savings in Renewable Integrated Distribution Network and Impact of Storage Devices Abstract — Energy loss reduction is a significa...