Abstract— Papers investigate a Kaldor-Kalecki model of business cycle system with two different delays, which described the interaction of the gross product and the capital product. We derived the conditions for the local stability and the existence of Hopf bifurcation at the equilibrium of the system. By applying the normal form theory and center manifold theory, some explicit formulate for determining the stability and the direction of the Hopf bifurcation periodic solutions are obtained. Some numerical simulations by using Mathematica software supported the theoretical results. Finally, main conclusions are given.
Keywords— Two delays, Hopf bifurcation, Stability, Business cycle, Normal form.
Abstract— In this paper, the anti-centrosymmetric matrices have been researched. According to the structural characteristics of the anti-centrosymmetric matrix, some new methods have been used to prove the necessary and sufficient conditions of a matrix being anti-centrosymmetric and its properties of eigenvalue and eigenvector; the nonsingularity of the anti-centrosymmetric matrices have been discussed,that the odd order anti-centrosymmetric matrix is singular has been obtained, and two methods of computing inverse of the matrices(even order) have been given.
Keywords— Anti-centrosymmetric Matrix, Centrosymmetric Matrix, Eigenvalue, Inverse Matrix.
Management and Conservation Water Techniques for and by Farmers: when the water management is a risk shared by the community. Case of fragile ecosystems in Algeria
Abstract— Algeria is situated in a region where the lack of water is frequent. Indeed, the period of drought is long even for zones classified in wet bioclimatic floors. This period of drought spreads out generally May until mid October for the wet said zones and all year long for the dry and desert zones. Rains are irregular and unevenly distributed. The recourse use to the techniques of collection of rainwaters, management and preservation for traditional processes is a current practice which tends to be neglected in favour of "modern" techniques of irrigation.
Our contribution has double objective:
Rehabilitation of certain techniques of collections of rainwaters (valats, poach stones, impluvium) where it is used mainly for the olive tree and the fig tree (Mounts of Kabylia, Beni Snous), and,
A study of the management techniques and preservation of the water where the risk is shared by all the community (foggara,…)
Moreover, we underline that certain areas to fragile ecology are rich in sources of water, which in spite of the institution of the social rules which make the unanimity regarding sharing and regarding distribution; the farmers cannot manage to satisfy the water requirements of their cultures, only revenue stream for some of them.
This requires a renovation of the traditional system of water delivery to the plot of land without disrupting the already established social rules, where from the necessity of a participative work, where the farmers are actively involved. The methods of water sharing are based on equity, rigor, solidarity and mutual aid through the organization of the tour of water according to the size of the plot of land, the moment of intervention, the timing and the cultures to be irrigated.
We underline that the maintenance of the network is made prior to the beginning of the campaign (countryside) of irrigation in the form of "touisa" and financial resources have never been a means of access to water. The water source is considered as a benefit of the community regardless of its location.
Keywords— community, participation, preservation, fragile ecosystem, Algeria.
Effect of radiation on electrical characteristic measurement of the fabricated CdTe / P-Si heterojunction Solar Cell
Abstract— The electrical and photovoltaic properties of CdTe/p-Si heterojunction solar cells prepared by evaporation cooting on a single-crystal p-type silicon substrates are examined, under (100) mw/cm2, 25℃. The best fabricated cell shows an open-circuit voltage before irradiation g is(0.59V) and after irradiation g is (0.565 V ). The short-circuit current density before irradiation is (35 mA/cm2) and after irradiation is(30 mA/cm2). The fill factor before irradiation g is (54.5 %) and after irradiation g is (53 %). The conversion efficiency (active area) before irradiation g is(11.2%) and after irradiation g is(5.1%) .was observed during two-hour illumination test and after storing the cell in air for three months. The illumination is from the CdTe side (front wall ) .The cells are analyzed using I-V and P-V measurements, with focus on the influence of the time solar cell radiation, light intensity illumination and effective dose of γ-radiation, which play a crucial role to improve the solar cell efficiency. γ-irradiation campaign with different doses has been carried out on a series of solar cells. Deterioration of silicon solar cells parameters by gamma irradiation; this is strongly supported by results of minority carrier lifetime, which show a clearly decreasing minority carrier lifetime as radiation dose increases.
Keywords— n-CdTe/ P-Si Cells Performance, γ-radiation Effects, Electrical and Photovoltaic Characteristics solar cell, gamma radiation, spectral photo current.
Abstract— In this paper, we have done some important analysis of bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of coffee and eucalyptus sawdust in the presence of 5% Hydrogen. The bio-oil was obtained in one step pyrolysis in which temperature of the system was kept 25ºC and then increased up to 850ºC. After pyrolysis the obtained dark sticky liquid (highly viscous bio-oil) was introduced to thermal cracking. During thermal cracking the bio-oil was condensed at two different temperatures 100ºC and 5ºC so we got two types of bio-oil, BHTT (bio-oil obtained at high temperature 100 ºC after thermal cracking) and BLTT (bio-oil obtained at low temperature 5ºC after thermal cracking). Then both types of bio-oil were distillated and analyzed in Gas chromatography and Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC/TOFMS). Agriculture residue bio-oil and its thermal cracking fractions could be effectively characterized by GC/MS and GC×GC/TOFMS, where the light fraction was composed of a wide range of lower polarity compounds while heavy fraction had higher polarity compounds.
Keywords— Chromatographic analysis, GC/MS, GC×GC/TOFMS, biomass pyrolysis, bio-oil production.
BESC: Bio-oil produced from Coffee and Eucalyptus Sawdust
BHTT: Bio-oil condensed at100ºC High Temperature after Thermal cracking
BLTT: Bio-oil condensed at 5ºC Low Temperature after Thermal cracking
Abstract— The transmission and the reflection of Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are calculated theoretically under ocean. The nonlinear effects appear on the reflectivity and the transmitivity of traveling signals. A full study for the performance of the nine apodization profiles for the FBG under the effect of temperature, pressure and water depth are investigated. Then, schedules have been done for the optimum values for the reflectivity of all types, selecting the appropriate profile which is the Sinc one giving about 99% reflectivity for the grating.
Keywords— FBG, Transmission, Reflectivity.
Abstract— In this paper, we propose a nonparametric CUSUM control chart for detecting a range of shifts in the location parameters based on previous research. This control chart is dynamically adaptive, ranks method-based nonparametric and self-starting; it can monitor various sizes of shifts in difference distributions simultaneously; and it can be used to monitor processes at the start-up stages. This control chart is designed with variable sampling interval technology, which makes it more intelligent and sensitive. Simulation study of reference parameters values and performance comparisons are introduced in detail, so as to conveniently apply this chart to practical production process monitoring. An illustrative chemical example is also present to demonstrate the well implementation of this chart.
Keywords— Variable sampling interval, Adaptive control chart, CUSUM, Nonparametric scheme.
Abstract— In this paper, the gap function for set-valued variational inequalities is introduced and the finiteness of the gap function is discussed. Furthermore, under µ-strongly monotone condition, we obtain error bounds for set-valued variational inequalities, i.e. upper estimates forthe distance to the solution set of the variational inequalities.
Keywords— variational inequalities, gap functions, set-valued maps, error bounds.
Abstract— This paper uses probit and ordered probit methods to examine the impact of banks’ policies in terms of cost efficiency, capitalization, liquidity, activity diversification, credit growth and profitability on the loan quality in the Tunisian banking sector after controlling for the effects of firm-specific characteristics and macroeconomic conditions. Using a data set with detailed information for more than 9,000 firms comprising the portfolios of the ten largest Tunisian banks, we show that banks which are cost inefficient, low capitalized and illiquid are more likely to have a lower quality of loans. However, activity diversification, bank size and profitability do not seem to offer an important contribution in explaining the evolution of loan quality. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of taking into account firm-specific characteristics and macroeconomic developments when assessing the loan quality of banks from a financial stability perspective.
Keywords— bank specific factors, firm specific factors, loan quality, ordered probit, probit.
Mathematical Analysis and Practical Applications of a Serial-Parallel Robot with Delta-Like Architecture
Abstract—Delta robot is a mechanical design in a kind of parallel type. It is moved by three groups of power structures on the platform of active arms and passive arms led by the end of the platform equipped with the fourth axis at the end of the structure. In this paper, the serial-parallel design of a modified delta robot is proposed, which SolidWorks is employed for designing the mechanics. Forward and inverse kinematics are analyzed to establish the robotic arms, and the wiring hardware system is used to control the motors. To enhance the accuracies of the outputs of the motors, we employ the spherical bearings instead of the traditional ball joints. To verify the performances of the proposed designed delta robot, various tasks are introduced including drawing, playing dominos, objects classification based on image processing, and so on.
Keywords—Robotic arm, delta robot, forward and inverse kinematics, multi-axis robot control.
Towards a Framework for Executives and Decision Makers to Discriminate Big Data Projects for International Development
Abstract— In the context of International Development, Big Data Projects are often ill defined with a clear mix of terminology with trendy words such as Apps, GIS, Open Data, etc. often leading to overestimated budgets, unnecessary computing resources and unrealistic social outcomes. In this paper, we propose a framework for Executives and Decision Makers to allow them to clearly discriminate Big Data Projects regardless to the technical details related to this new Technology. The focus in our framework is rather on the broader Context, Objectives and Intended Outcomes of Projects.
Keywords— Big Data, International Development, Decision Making Framework.
Abstract— Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are beneficial reinforcement materials for high performance and multifunctional cement-based composites. However, it is difficult to uniformly disperse CNTs/CNFs in cement-based composite during the composite fabrication process due to CNTs/CNFs aggregation. The in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/mineral admixture provides a new method to solve this issue. This article summarizes the methods and theories of in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/mineral admixture, including chemical vapor deposition method and microwave irradiating conductive polymers method. Properties of the cement-based composites made from the CNTs/CNFs-grown cement/mineral admixture are presented. The issues about the in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/ mineral admixture that needed to be further studied are discussed.
Keywords— Carbon nanotubes, Carbon nanofibers ,Cement-based composites ,Cement, Mineral admixture.
Abstract— Silica coatings from polysilazane precursors were prepared to protect aluminium substrates from corrosion. Polysilazane can be converted to silica by simple exposition to air or basic vapours and the properties of the synthesized film make this precursor a valuable choice to obtain solid, crack-free, highly adhesive and protective coatings. The optimal deposition, obtained at 15 cm min-1 of dip-coating withdrawal speed, 20% PHPS precursor in n-butyl ether, 24 hours of exposition to 10% ammonia vapours and 6 days of ageing in air, manages to slow down the corrosion process by three orders of magnitude, therefore providing a longer lasting commodity. Specimens have been characterized by IR and XPS spectroscopy, AFM imaging and electrochemical studies.
Keywords— PHPS, Silica, Coating, Corrosion, Aluminium.
Kinetic Modelling of the Adsorption Treatment of Waste Lubricating Oil using Activated Ukpor Clay (Bentonite)
Abstract— The re-refining of waste lubricating oil using activated Ukpor clay as an adsorbent was investigated. Clay activation was performed using sulphuric acid (H2SO4) with equivalent concentrations varying between 0.5 – 2 mol/L at a constant temperature of 90oC for 3.5 hours. The adsorption process was studied over a fixed amount of adsorbent at ambient conditions. Adsorbent performance was determined by its effectiveness in enhancing the properties of the waste oil and in removing trace metal ions contained in them. Furthermore, the effect of contact time and the adsorption performance of the adsorbent in the recycling treatment of the lubricating oil were evaluated. The kinetic data were modelled using the Pseudo-first order, the Pseudo-second order, the intra particle diffusion and the Elovich kinetic models. Analysis carried out on the lubricating oil showed the presence of many heavy metal ions and trace elements. Ca, Pb and Zn had the highest concentrations of 804, 398 and 222 mg/L respectively, while Ba had the least concentration of 0.1 mg/L. However, with treatment using this adsorbent, the concentrations of Ca, Pb and Zn were found to considerably reduce to 3.6, 5.6 and 0.01 mg/L respectively. The concentration of Ba was equally found to reduce to 0.01 mg/L, wherein the clay sample treated with 2 mol/L H2SO4 gave the best result in terms of improvement in the properties of the lubricating oil as well as on the percentage removal of these heavy metals and trace elements. For best describing the process within the adsorbent and with a high correlation coefficient (R2 value > 0.999), kinetic data were best fitted by the Pseudo-second order kinetic model and this result indicates that this adsorbent provides a good medium for the re-refining of waste lubricating oil.
Keywords— Clay; recycling; adsorption; lubricating oil; kinetic models.
Abstract— Retrofitting is the modification of existing structure which may or may not be damaged to make them more resistant to external forces. The objectives like Upgraded loading requirements; damage by accidents and environmental conditions, rectification of initial design flaws, change of usage can be achieved by retrofitting. The solutions adopted are generally based on successful prior practice. It is necessary to take a decision whether to demolish a distressed structure or to restore the same for effective load carrying system. Many a times, the level of distress is such that with minimum restoration measures the structural component can be brought back to its normalcy and during such times retrofitting is preferred. One of the techniques of strengthening RC structural elements is through confinement with composite enclosure. FRP material, which are available in the form of sheet or laminates are used to enhance the flexural, shear, and axial load carrying capacity of these elements. The proposed technique consist of wrapping Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite mats on the shear and Flexural zones of the RC beam and studying their characteristics.
Keywords— Epoxy Resin, Flexural strength, Glass fiber reinforced polymer, shear Strength, Woven mat.
Abstract—Fiber- reinforced polymer (FRP) application is a very effective way to repair strengthens structures that have become structurally weak over their life span. FRP repair systems provide an economically viable alternative to traditional repair systems and materials Experimental investigations on the shear behaviour of RC beams strengthened using continuous glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets are carried out. Externally reinforced concrete beams with epoxy- bonded GFRP sheets were tested to failure using a symmetrical two point loading system. The strengthening of the beams is done with different amount and configuration of GFRP sheets. Experimental data on load, deflection and failure modes of each of the beams were obtained. The detail procedure and applications of GFRP sheets for strengthening of RC beams is also included. The effect of number of GFRP layers and its orientation on ultimate load carrying capacity and failure mode of the beams are investigated
Keywords—strengthening, glass fiber composites, epoxy resin, reinforced concrete beam, shear force.
Abstract— To see the impact of insecticide vegetable oil (Neem) on aphid of the green alfalfa, we conducted tests to compare with the synthetic product Malyphos most used by farmers in our region. Because of these, we treated the plants alfalfa infested by aphids with doses of product and the vegetable oil of Neem. In spring-summer or there is a significant number of plant louses and after a controlled time we determines the percentages dead of this parasite in order to obtaining the mortality according to time and dose of the synthetic product and of this oil. The comparison of the aphid mortality between the Malyphos product and the vegetable oil made it possible to reveal the role of this natural extracts on the limitation of manpower of these parasites and their possible use as plant health naturalness without side-effect on the human health and the environment.
Keywords— aphid, chemical, insecticide, malyphos, mortality, Neem, vegetable.
Abstract— The motivation for our project is the need to save fuel. LPG is a non-renewable source of energy, hence it is important that we need to use it judiciously. It is observed that a single household sometimes has multiple gas connections. This is simply because they are not aware of their fuel consumption rate. Our idea addresses this problem. The proposed idea aims to make the household consumer aware of their usage and thereby helping to reduce the LPG consumption. The number of deaths due to explosion of gas cylinders has been increasing in recent years. Thus there is need for a system to detect and also prevent leakage of LPG. The proposed project also implements leak detection and intimates the house owner of the same.
Keywords— Microcontroller, GSM Module, Sensors, Front-End Amplifier.
Abstract— It is significant to develop a limited-DOF parallel manipulator (PM) with high rigidity. However, the existing limited-DOF PMs include so many spherical joint which has less capability of pulling force bearing, less rotation range and lower precision under alternately heavy loads. A novel 5-DOF PM with two planar limbs is proposed and its kinematics is analyzed systematically. A 3-dimension simulation mechanism of the proposed manipulator is constructed and its structure characteristics are analyzed. The kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of the platform, the active legs are established. An analytic example is given for solving the kinematics of the proposed manipulator and the analytic solved results are verified by the simulation mechanism. It provides the theoretical and technical foundations for its manufacturing, control and application.
Keywords— kinematics, limited-DOF, parallel manipulator, planar limbs, singularity
Development and experimentation of atelemedicine solution built around a digital stethoscope. The “BlueHealth” project
Abstract— In this paper, we assess the viability of a solution using a digital stethoscope, together with cordless Bluetooth technology for the comfort of use and the telecommunication means and technology to offer a cost / performance ratio that makes it applicable to Doctor markets (eStetho). We also assess the development of a telemedicine solution: BlueHealth project, in relation with this electronic stethoscope. The described solution allows for: 1) Collection, cleaning and record of physiological data in streaming mode; with primary focus on auscultation sounds for lung and heart analysis; 2) Formatting xml based metadata to carry administrative information related to the patient, to the practitioner, to the device, to the institution, etc., together with physiological data; 3) Transmission of data (protection, confidentiality, access rights, sharing, etc.); 4) Processing (signal processing) of the data for diagnostic help; and 5) Multimedia communication, with audio over IP and display of the record on IPTouch or any other xml compatible device.
Keywords— Telemedicine; Auscultation; Stethoscope; Use case; Bluetooth.
Authors contributions— This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Authors EA, SR and RG designed and wrote the project. Authors EA, SR and RG managed the development of the project and the experimentation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Abstract— Meta-analysis is a probabilistic technique which groups results from several studies addressing the same topic and produces a result that summarizes the whole. Results generated are graphically displayed without providing interactivity with the user or reproducing a friendly, easy to comprehend interface. In order to obtain a visual exploratory analysis of the most satisfactory results there are Information Visualization techniques which can be applied to map data graphically aiming to broaden the user cognition. This paper presents an analysis of hierarchical information visualization techniques to determine which of them can best represent a data structure, develops meta-analysis and applies information visualization techniques, obtained from the analysis, to the meta-analysis results obtained through the Software R.
Keywords— Information Visualization Techniques, Bifocal Tree, Funnel Plot, Dynamic Visualization, Graphic Design, Hierarchy Visualization.
Abstract— Analogous to the smart grid in electrical context, we have developed a smart thermal grid providing features to supply grid network partners either with heat or to consume superfluous thermal energy. A local communication and supply network connects several customers with each other. Depending on offer or demand, the transport medium can be transmitted bidirectional between interconnected network node stations. The network for information exchange and trading operates parallel to the thermal supply network.
Our developed network nodes consist of a hydraulic module for transportation, measurement and control technology as well as a microcomputer for advanced tasks and communication. Furthermore, the microcomputer provides a swarm intelligence controller. Our controller is responsible for data communication, processing network events and realizing a strategy for optimized network operation. Network nodes are able to optimize the network in a decentralized manner. Network nodes are devices that manage all transport-, measuring and control tasks. This paper gives a brief insight into our development efforts to the hardware and software platform of our microcomputer as well as the routing strategy based on ant colony optimization.
Keywords— Smart Thermal Grid, Smart Grid, Swarm Intelligence Controller, Ant Colony Optimization
The Effect of Different 2, 4-D Doses on Callus Induction and Chromosomal Structure in Maize (Zea Mays L.)
Abstract— This research in which the matured embryos of 10 registered common corn varieties grown in Turkey (Pioneer 31N27, Pioneer 31P41, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer 34N24, ADA 8924, DKC 6022, BC 666, TECTOR, ADA 523 and HELEN) were used as plant materials was carried out in Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Turkey. In the stage of in vitro of this research which was arranged in vitro and in vivo media, the effect on callus induction and plant regeneration in 6 different varieties of 2,4-D doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg/l) through callus culture was investigated. In the stage of in vivo, samples from the root tips composed of the callus of all maize varieties were taken, and the changes observed in the chromosomal numbers in maize lines were evaluated. As a result of the microscopic analyses of the root tips obtained through the application of 2,4-D auxin in different corn varieties in different doses, changes were observed in the chromosomal numbers of Pioneer 31N27 (2n=18), Pioneer 3223 (2n=19) and Pioneer 34N24 (2n=19) maize varieties. Mitotic anomaly observed through the application of 2,4-D was established as aneuploidy (the change of the chromosomal number in genome) and it was found to form as the decrease of the chromosomal number (hipoploidy). According to the data found, the dose of 2,4-D to be used in the transgenic maize producing studies to be utilized in Turkey was determined to be 2 mg/l providing the highest callus formation ratio but causing no chromosomal deviations.
Keywords— Zea mays, Corn, Maize, Callus Induction, Chromosomal Number.
Abstract— The flight control system (FCS) over power line communication (PLC) is subject to strong real time constraints and harsh aircraft operating conditions. Then, low complex and accurate synchronization procedure have to be adapted. In this paper, we propose a synchronization procedure performed in two phases and we focus on the operating phase with a synchronization using the received data to estimate the sampling frequency offset. This estimation is performed by using two estimators based on the maximum likelihood principle. The first estimator performs the estimation on one orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission symbol. The second estimator performs the estimation on 20 successive OFDM symbols and uses the estimation of the previous estimator. The performances of the estimator are compared to the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The proposed synchronization procedure reached the CRLB and satisfies the FCS constraints over PLC.
Keywords— PLC, OFDM, avionics, aircraft, sampling frequency synchronization, Cramér-Rao lower bound, maximum likelihood, safety critical systems, HVDC network.
Abstract— Big Data is currently a very burning topic in the fields of Computer Science and Business Intelligence, and with such a scenario at our doorstep, a humungous amount of information waits to be documented properly with emphasis on the market. By market, we mean the current technologies in use, the current prevalent tools, and the companies playing an imperative role in taming the data with such a colossal outreach.
Keywords— Big Data, Cloud, Apache, Hadoop, Spark, Analytics.
Tumors of the Right Atrium – A Review of cases operated in Department of Cardiac Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, between 2008 and 2015
Abstract— Cardiac tumors, especially those of the right atrium (RA), are not prevalent. The most common tumor of RA is myxoma which must be differentiated with other neoplastic tumors and thrombi. The most important role in diagnostics plays echocardiography and histopathological examination of removed masses. Other diagnostic methods also deliver additional information useful in therapeutic process. Nine cases of tumors of RA operated through median sternotomy both electively and non-electively, between 2008 and 2015, were analyzed in the present study. The rate of myxomae and thrombi was higher than expected. Also operative outcome was found to be worse in non-elective patients. Although due to a small number of analyzed patients, further studies including multicenter trials are necessary. The fact that fast diagnostics enabling optimal timing and type of the surgery is essential for good therapeutic results is undeniable. One of the reasons which may delay a proper diagnosis is the fact that tumors of RA do not have specific clinical presentation and are quite rare.
Keywords— Cardiac surgery, Myxoma, Right atrium, Thrombus, Tumor.
Ambient air mercury species (TGM, RGM, GEM) concentration study during mid-winter～mid-spring season at a traffic site
Abstract— The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air mercury species (TGM, RGM, GEM) of Hung-Kuang traffic area at sampling site during mid-winter～mid-spring season. In addition, four-stage gold amalgamation and denuder samplers were used to collect the ambient air mercury species concentrations, respectively. Moreover, cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS) was directly used to detect the mercury TGM and RGM concentrations in this study.
The result indicated that: 1). The average ratio for RGM concentrations out of the total gaseous mercury concentration was about 1.65% at the traffic sampling site. 2) The average TGM concentration values obtained in this study were 6630 (pg/m3) which is second to China average 9800 (pg/m3) when compared with the other countries during year 2010～2013. In addition, Canada showed the average lowest RGM concentrations when Compared the other world areas during year of 2014～2015. The average RGM concentrations ratios for this study (average 91.8 pg/m3) to Canada were about 73.4 during years of 2014～2015. 3) The results indicated that the correlation coefficients among total gaseous mercury (TGM), reaction gaseous mercury (RGM), gaseous element mercury GEM and meteorological conditions such as temperature and wind speed were low correlated related during mid-winter～mid-spring season at this traffic sampling site. 4) Statistical method (Mann-Whitney U statistical) results revealed that there were significant differences in the mean concentrations values for the ambient air TGM, RGM and TGM were the Hung-Kuang sampling periods at this traffic sampling site
Keywords— denuder, four-stage gold amalgamation, gaseous element mercury, reactive gaseous mercury, total gaseous mercury.
Abstract— One of the important implementations in image-processing field is the image restoration. Image restoration deals with the recovery of an original image from a degraded image using a mathematical model of degradation and restoration for image. Image restoration is becoming more and more important in the image-processing field, and it is very important in many applications like medical, satellite and photography. In spite of the various existing solutions available to image restoration, there is always a need for more efficient methods. In this paper, several restoration and deconvolution techniques, experimented and tested, we used both blind and non-blind techniques. Then we propose a combination between blind and non-blind techniques in order to improve the quality of the restored image. Several types of noise are added to the image after it has been blurred. We have tested the behavior of the different filters and techniques in removing each type of noise. The evaluation of the filters behaviors and the conclusion are done based on various metrics like PSNR, MSE, RMSE and IEF.
Keywords— Image processing, Image restoration, blind and non-blind techniques, Noise, Metrics.