Saturday, 1 October 2016

Engineering Journal : September 2016

Engineering Journal: International Journal of Engineering Research & Science publishes articles of international interest from all areas of Engineering and Science research.

The Effects of Individualized Physical Rehabilitation Program


Objective: to evaluate the effects of long-term aerobic training, designed with individualized method based on lactate threshold definition, on exercise capacity, HF severity and ergoreflex activity.

Methods: We evaluated 73 HF patients, mean age 53+/-1.8, 59 men, with NYHA class III, LVEF 40,8+/-0,3%. CPET performed on a treadmill ("Oxycon Pro" (Jaeger, Germany)) at baseline, in every 8 weeks and after 6 months. The cubital venous catheter was inserted before CPET. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 1-minute intervals during test. Lactate concentration in blood was measured using analyzer i-STAT, cartridge CG4 (Abbot, USA). All patients were randomized into following groups: 50 patients of study group (SG), who underwent physical rehabilitation program (PRP), calculated due to lactate threshold; and 23 HF patients control group (CG), who underwent physical training, calculated based on VO2 percentage.

Results: At baseline CPET results in both groups did not significantly differ. VО2 at lactate threshold and VО2peak were 8.7+/-0,5; 13,5+/-0,9 ml/min/kg and 8.9 +/- 0.9; 13,6+/-1,2 ml/min/kg in study group and control group, respectively (p1=0,08, p2=0,07, respectively). After 24 weeks of training VО2LT and VО2peak were better in the study group than in control group: the increase was 16% and 24% in the main group, and 4% and 7% in the control group, respectively (p1<0,01, p2<0,01). The ergoreflex activity at baseline did not significantly differ in two study groups. After long-term aerobic training we recorded a more marked reduction in the ergoreflex activity in study group: for DBP it was 35% and 20%, VE - 48% and 25%, VE/VCO2 - 39% and 12%, in the study group and control groups, respectively. By the 24th week of training in 34 (85%) patients of the study group the severity of HF was reduced to NYHA class II, and among the patients in the control group such dynamics was observed only in 17(50%) patients.

Conclusions: aerobic exercise, designed with individualized method based on lactate threshold definition, increase exercise tolerance, reduces HF severity and ergoreflex activity more than aerobic training, calculated based on VO2peak percentage.

Keywords Physical Rehabilitation, HF patients, threshold, NYHA class III, aerobic exercise.

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Numerical Simulations of Longitudinal Advection Dispersion Contaminant Decay Model with Time-dependent Sources with COMSOL Multiphysics

Abstract A direct simulation investigations of contaminant transport has been conducted. The simulations are based on the unsteady longitudinal advection diffusion contaminant decay equation, which is discretized using finite element Galerkin’s method with backward difference time formulation with the application of COMSOL Multiphysics Software Package. It was observed that the simulation results, which are illustrated pictorially via line graphs and contours, consistently represented the analytical solutions of Mebine and George (2011), thereby demonstrating interesting features of the problem effected by the variety of contaminant decay time-dependent sources.

Keywords Advection, COMSOL Multiphysics, Contaminant decay, Dispersion, Pollution, Time-dependent sources.

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Solving Complex Fuzzy Linear System of Equations by using QR-Decomposition Method

Abstract In this paper, QR-decomposition method for solving the complex fuzzy linear equation in which is a crisp complex matrix and is an arbitrary complex fuzzy vector is considered. Some examples are given to illustrate the proposed method.

Keywords Complex fuzzy numbers, Fuzzy linear systems, Fuzzy approximate solutions, QR-decomposition.

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Optimization studies for industrial wastewater defluoridation by adsorption: application of a design of experiments

AbstractThis paper aims to examine the treatment of aluminum fluoride-manufacturing wastewaters (AFMW) by adsorption on Tunisian natural clay using a two-level full factorial design. For this sake, three operating parameters supposed to affect the removal efficiency were chosen: dose of adsorbent, concentration of fluoride ions, and pH of the medium. Factors that influence the fluoride removal efficiency were evaluated statistically by using factorial plots. Diagram of the effects was used to check the significance of the effect on percentage removal. The statistical analysis allowed verifying that the dose of adsorbent and pH have an influence on the fluoride elimination. Treatment of a strongly acidic (pH ~ 2) and fluoride-rich AFMW (F=26,000 mg/L) by adsorption on natural clay was used to determine the optimum conditions. The application of this method has led to an important decrease in fluorine content (> 98%).

KeywordsAdsorption, Aluminum fluoride-manufacturing, Design of Experiment, Fluoride, Industrial wastewater, Natural clay.

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Prediction of expansive soil based on the coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE)

Abstract An expansive soil is any soil that is prone to large volume changes (shrinking and swelling) directly related to changing moisture conditions. The swelling capacity can cause heaving, or lifting of structures whilst shrinkage can cause differential settlement. The amounts by which the ground can shrink and/ or swell depend not only on the supply of moisture in the ground but also on the type and amount of clay minerals, internal structure and void ratios of the soil. Characterization of swelling potential is critically important to mitigate the adverse effects of expansive soils. Therefore, this study uses the coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE) as the controlling method to characterize swelling potential of expansive soils. The samples for this test were retrieved from two different locations in areas prone with expansive soils in Kibaha Township in Tanzania. Bulk density was determined on irregular soil clods and COLE was calculated as the difference between bulk density values at 1/3 bar and oven-dry condition. The coefficient of linear extensibility that ranged from 0.09 to 1.15 clearly indicated soils with high to very high shrink–swell potential. Lastly, a direct relationship existed between COLE and colloids contents with high degree of correlation (i.e. Correlation Coefficients (R) equal to 0.942 and 0.824 for samples RC5 and RB3 respectively) providing a confirmation to the presence of high to very high expansive potential of the soils.

Keywords Expansive soil, coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE), Clay content and shrink-swell potential.

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Preventing Coordination Problems during the Design Stage of Projects

Abstract The design stage of construction projects is considered one of the most fragmented stages in the life cycle of a project since it involves many participants and several geographic locations. Considering the giant size of the construction industry in the United Arab Emirates and the complexity of construction projects, it is hardly surprising that there are also coordination problems during the design process. Coordination problems, normally seen in the contract documents of almost every project, are direct results of the ongoing growth in the construction industry in the country. Decisions during the design stage have an extensive impact on all succeeding stages. Producing a quality design is highly dependent upon effective coordination among the diverse teams in the process. As a step towards effective design coordination, this paper investigates the manner by which expert designers prevent mistakes, detect mismatches, and communicate changes during the design stage. A questionnaire survey was conducted among design firms in the United Arab Emirates to collect information about the current coordination practice used during the design stage. Causes and frequency of coordination problems along with recommendations on solutions to these problems have been presented and areas of potential improvement have been identified. Based on the results of the survey, the study then suggested a coordination management scheme that can be used as a general guide to improve coordination during the design stage. Common interrelationships within the design development have also been explicated.

Keywords Coordination Problems, Design Process, Management, Quality Design, Questionnaire Survey.

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Hydration Kinetics and Fire Resistance of Recycled Low Grade Alumino-Silicate Refractory Bricks Waste-Metakaolin Composite Cement Pastes

Abstract The aim of the present work is to study the effect of low grade aluminosilicate refractory bricks (ASRBs) with metakaolin (MK) on the hydration properties and the fire resistance of composite cement pastes at elevated temperature up to 800 oC. The composite cement are composed of constant proportion of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) (80 wt%) with variable amounts of ASRBs and MK. The substitution of 20% ASRBs with MK increases the water of consistency and retarded the initial as well as the final setting times, whereas the free lime contents and the bulk density decreases with MK. The compressive strength increases with MK content which enhanced the early and long term strength. It acts also as micro-filler that accelerates initial cement hydration. The fire resistance of composite cement pastes was evaluated up to 800 oC with rate of firing 5 oC/min. and soaking time for 2 h. The physico-mechanical properties such as, weight loss, bulk density and compressive strength were determined at each firing temperature. Moreover, some selected samples were investigated by using XRD, DTA/TG and SEM techniques analyses. Cement pastes containing 20 wt% ASRBs (PC-A) is the optimum composite cement paste which gives high bulk density and compressive strength. It can be concluded the cement paste PC-A has a good fire resistance paste.

Keywords MK, ASRBs, DTA, XRD, Hydration, Fire resistance cement.

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Vibration analysis of electric grass trimmer using FEM

Abstract HAV(Hand Arm Vibration)is a major problem in workers who operates hand held machine in day to day life, Hand arm vibration is form of vibration that is transmitted into your hands and arms, usually as a result of carrying out mechanized, hand-held work tasks. In this experiment the test RIG is manufactured to give comfort as well as help in reduction for Vibration, this rig also isolated by trimmer using MR elastomer and Foam and all readings are taken by FFT and validated by FEA.

Keywords HAV-Hand Arm Vibration, FFT-Fast Fourier Transformer, MR Elastomer-Magneto Rheolaogical.

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New method for heat loss calculation

Abstract - The process of heat transportation by means of heat distribution networks is accompanied by considerable heat losses, which has the impact on the overall operation of a heat distribution network as well as the efficiency of heat supply. Heat losses depend on several factors such as the temperature of transported working fluid, ambient temperature, design of the heat distribution system (channel, directly buried, underground, above-ground...), its length, the thickness and quality of the insulation material used.

Keywords - heat loss, thermal network, thermal resistance, insulation thickness, balance method.

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Monitoring and Analysis of Deformation Laws of Deep Foundation Pit Considering Spatial Effect

Abstract Starting with the analysis of the foundation pit design, the support structure of foundation pit was designed and checked combined with a large deep foundation pit project in Shijiazhuang; According to the current codes, the monitoring scheme considering spatial effect is established; The fiber grating sensor was introduced in the monitoring of the lateral pressure of foundation pit slope, which could realize the on-line, dynamic and real-time monitoring. The field test results showed that spatial effect was significantly reflected in the deformation, earth pressure and other aspects: the foundation pit slope of central settlement is 40%~65% bigger than corner ,horizontal displacement in the middle is 28%~42% larger than corner; The amplification of the positive angle to the settlement and horizontal displacement reached 48% and 11% respectively; The maximum horizontal displacement of the deep soil is located at the depth of 15%~35% below the excavation face; lateral earth pressure of Slope changed with volatility. The lateral earth pressure value of each measuring point increased with the increase of time. At a distance of 0.2 times of the excavation depth below the ground, the measured values of the center, external corner and inside corner were smaller than the calculated values of 42.10%,82.46% and 108.77% respectively; At a distance of 0.5 times of the excavation depth below the ground, the measured value of the middle was 35.21% greater than the calculated. The values of external corner and inside corner were 49.06% and 29.21% smaller than the calculated value respectively. At a distance of 0.8 times of the excavation depth below the ground, the measured values of the center, external corner and inside corner were greater than the calculated values of 6.29%, 40.41% and 23.27% respectively; The settlement of surrounding ground surface was larger when the foundation pit slope settlement was larger.

Keywords deep foundation, pit, spatial effect, deformation monitoring.

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Protection of Solar Powered Vehicle using Sensor

Abstract At present vehicles are majorly facing two problems. One is fuel (petrol or diesel) and other is accidents. The problems due to fuel are overcome with non-conventional sources like solar, fossil fuels, etc.. Now a day’s road accident is a major problem all over the world. Many innocent people are losing their lives. A majority of accidents are due to drunken driving, drowsiness and rash driving. To prevent road accidents we must have particular vehicle protection equipment. To prevent these situations, here we are designing a prototype solar powered vehicle with next generation features. In this paper we are using some sensors to detect ongoing situation like drunken and drowsiness of the driver. So when the driver was unable to handle the situation, then the vehicle will automatically take its control and automatically vehicle is protected.

Keywords Photovoltaic system, 8051 Microcontroller, Driver drowsiness detection, Alcohol detection in vehicles, IR sensor.

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Home Automation using Remote Control System

Abstract This paper provides remote controlling and automation for homes and offices. These are very essential in present life style. Wireless control is primary concern for everyone. This paper describes a design of effective remote control system that can monitor the house. Apart from remote control concern here we also take care of home automation. This paper gives the best solution for electrical power wastage. The home appliances are switched on/off using IR without actually going near to the switch boards or regulators. The water level of the tank can also be monitored and the motor can be controlled through automation.

Keywords Microcontroller, IR unit, Relays, Motor drive, water level sensor.

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Wireless Scada for Monitoring Load Conditions of Transformer and Temperature Control in Remote Plant

Abstract The main aim of the paper is to process the real time data acquisition wirelessly under supervisory control for small and large scale remote industrial environment. In large industrial establishments many processes go on, therefore it is essential to monitor all the processes and control the factors affecting them. Adapting a technology like WIRELESS SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) one can achieve the above mentioned objective effectively, and thus saving a lot of manpower. For achieving this real-time scenario, a temperature & transformer logging system for a remote plant operation is taken. Here temperature sensors & voltage sensors are duly interfaced to the 8051 microcontroller. Data collected from the temperature sensors & voltage sensors are constantly sent over 2.4 GHz transmitter wirelessly to the microcontroller which is then received at the matched 2.4 GHz USB type receiver connected to a PC / Laptop. One can set parameters like set point, low limit and high limit on the computer screen. When the temperature & voltage of sensors goes beyond set point the microcontroller sends a command to the corresponding relay. The heaters (shown as lamps) connected through relay contacts (corresponding to their sensors) are turned OFF (or ON in vice versa). Hence, processes at hazardous areas can be controlled with more accuracy and better safety using SCADA. Adapting such a technology will save both money and time.

Keywords SCADA, Zigbee, Embedded systems, Temperature sensors, transformer.

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Robot Navigation System with RFID and Ultrasonic Sensors

Abstract This Paper proposed a new navigation method for indoor mobile robots. The robot system is composed of a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag sensor and Ultrasonic sensors. The RFID tags are used as landmarks for global path planning and the topological relation map which shows the connection of scattered tags through the environment is used as course instructions to a goal. The robot automatically moves along hallways using the scanned range data until a tag is found and then refers to the topological map for the next movement. Our proposed technique would be useful for real-world robotic applications such as intelligent navigation for motorized wheelchairs, surveillance and security purposes and in Nuclear power plants where humans are prone to harmful radiations.

Keywords RFID Cards, Ultrasonic Sensor, Motor, Driver, Micro Controller.

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Wireless Speed Synchronization of Motors in Industry

Abstract In textile industry many processes require speed synchronization of more than one motors involved in the process. Rolling of cloth should be synchronized with the speed of weaving spindle to avoid damage and motor speed synchronization is vital in conveyor belt driven by multiple motors. Abrupt load variations may cause hunting or oscillatory behavior in d. c. machines. This behavior can be detrimental to the process. The digitally controlled d. c. machines can have much aggravated phenomenon owing to poor sampling period selection. Traditionally processes are synchronized through mechanical transmission system consisting of a line shaft gears, pullers etc. This project is synchronization of multiple motors using wireless technology.

This project uses radio frequency to synchronize motor speeds. One motor acts as transmitter and all the rest as receivers. Thus, if a particular speed is set in the transmitter then all other motors speed would be matched to the same speed of the main motor.

The mode of communication is radio frequency. BLDC motors used operate on the basis of PWM control. Each motor has a closed loop feedback mechanism providing RPM reference by a shaft mounted IR sensor arrangement whose output is fed to the controller in the circuit. A display unit displays the full speed and one can enter the desired percentage with help of a keypad to obtain the required speed for all the motors. Manpower and time is also saved in this system.

Keywords Micro controller, IR sensor, RF module, BLDC Motors and LCD.

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An approach for uniting bottom-up and top-down systems and its applications

Abstract We have investigated the possibility of creating a unification platform for top-down systems and bottom-up structures, which is one of the most important issues for harvesting fruits of upcoming nano-technologies and nano-science together with those of Si- LSI-based information technologies. Under the device-approach, for unifying bottom-up and top-down systems, proposed is a functional device that has hierarchical structures grown, or is to have hierarchical structures grow, inside, not as a result of top-down designing but as a result of self-organization, i.e., a bottom-up structure-formation. Spiral heterostructure is of potential interest for providing us with one-dimensional superlattice structure that would serve as a bridge between top-down LSI systems with two-dimensional bottom-up structures. The spiral heterostructure is, also, of importance for enabling multi-striped orthogonal photon-photocarrier-propagation solar cell (MOP3SC). On the other hand, as a tool-based approach, for unifying bottom-up and top-down systems, clean unit system platform (CUSP) is developed. CUSP can realize dust- and microbe-free environment. The clean versatile environments having small footprint, low power-consumption and high cost-performance can be realized with CUSP for the next generation production system as well as for cross-disciplinary experiments. The approach for uniting bottom-up and top-down systems gives not only new devices but also clean platforms that would be able to serve as clean space for all of us.

Keywords Top-down system, Bottom-up structure, device-based approach, spiral heterostructure, tool-based approach, clean unit system platform, CUSP.

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A study on Rain Water Harvesting at Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology Main Campus, Gunupur, Odisha

Abstract India is agriculture based country. Most of the people of India depend on agriculture for their live hood. Water is highly essential for agriculture apart from day to day use. Now fresh water is going to be scarcity because of water of lakes, rivers, ponds and lakes are polluted and even today some of the water bodies are not suitable for human use. Therefore, present day demands the conservation of fresh water and adaptation of rain water harvesting. Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur is a premier institute of south Odisha and the buildings are designed not only for good ambiences but also to catch the rain water. In this present work we have studied the catchment area of buildings, hydrological potential and runoff coefficient of Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur for the year 2015. The rain water harvesting potential (RWHP) of the buildings was found to 21039.63 m2.The study revealed that buildings of GIET campus are a potential source of rain water harvesting in this locality.

Keywords Rain water, rainwater harvesting potential, Gunupur.

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Evaluation ergonomic in agricultural Tractors

Abstract Agricultural mechanization is of extreme importance to high current agricultural demand. The increased production needs associated with the decrease in available area growth imply in the improvement and mechanization of techniques, being necessary to analyze all variables of the mechanization. As an example, exposure of workers to noise produced by agricultural tractors, which can be harmful to your health, to be occur a productive growth without affecting the minimum conditions imposed by Brazilian law. Excessive noise is a factor that affects the operators. This study aims at evaluating the levels and vibration and noise emitted by agricultural tractors with different powers, comparing the results with existing regulations in Brazil. The tractors studied were: Tractor A (engine power of 86 cv at 2200 rpm, manufactured in the year 2005, 4050,5 hours worked), Tractor B (engine power of 120 cv at 2200 rpm, manufactured in the year 2005, 3800,0 hours worked), Tractor C (engine power of 173 cv at 2200 rpm, manufactured in the year 1997, 7472, 9 hours worked), and Tractor D (engine power of 110 cv at 2200 rpm manufactured in the year 2011, 907 hours worked), crowded in Campus Hall Administrative USP Pirassununga.

Keywords noise, vibration, level.

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Effect of salicylic acid on germination of Ocimum gratissimum seeds induced into dormancy by chlormequat

Abstract The present work is to study the influence of salicylic acid in concentrations ranging from 0 to 1 mM on the germination of seeds of Ocimum gratissimum. This work is performed on non-dormant seeds and seeds induced into dormancy by chlormequat at a concentration of 550 mg / L. The study shows that salicylic seems to play an important role in acid stimulation of germination of non-dormant seeds that role varies with the concentration of salicylic acid: low concentrations lead to a small inhibition of germination whereas higher concentrations (greater than 0.5 mM) lead to stimulation of the germination. Furthermore, we found that the SA causes a dormancy dormant seeds. This dormancy is partial and slow at low concentrations (0.05 and 0.25 mM) and becomes complete when the concentration of SA increases. In this case, dormancy is very fast since the germination rate becomes important from the 3rd day.

Keywords chlormequat, dormancy, Ocimum gratissimum, salicylic acid.

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