Wednesday, 2 August 2017

Engineering Journal: July issue 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-7, 2017 with AD Publications

Optimal Well Locations using Genetic Algorithm for Tushki Project, Western Desert, Egypt

Abstract— The well location problem is challenging due to the non-linear, discrete and often multi-modal objective function. The optimal distribution of productive well locations mitigates the groundwater productivity problem that threats the national projects in arid countries like Egypt. In this paper, a trial to mitigate this problem in Tushki National Project, south western desert, Egypt is supposed via delineating the optimal well locations and optimal pumping rates. The methodology of combination between simulation and optimization techniques is applied. The simulation outputs of groundwater flow system by Visual MODFLOW model is linked by the constructed Fortran Code for Optimal well Location using Genetic Algorithm (OLGA Code) for obtaining the optimum management of groundwater resources in this project. Two management cases are considered by running the model domain with adopted steady and transit calibrated parameters. The first management case deals with the present well locations and predicts the optimal value of the objective function (maximum pumping rate). In the second case, the optimal new well locations resulted from the OLGA Code is predicted from flexible well location with the moving well option. Also, the prediction of the future changes in both head and flow are studied in steady and transient states.

Keywords Groundwater, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Tushki project.

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Numerical treatment and Global Error Estimation of a MHD Flows of an Oldroyd 6-Constant Nano-Fluid through a non-Darcy Porous medium with Heat and Mass Transfer

Abstract Explicit Finite-Difference method was used to obtain the solution of the system of the non-linear ordinary differential equations which transform from the non-linear partial differential equations. These equations describe the steady magneto-hydrodynamic flow of an oldroyd 6-constant non-Newtonian nano-fluid through a non-Darcy porous medium with heat and mass transfer. The numerical formula of the velocity, the temperature, the concentration, and the nanoparticles concentration distributions of the problem were illustrated graphically. The effect of Darcy number Da, Forchheimer number Fs, magnetic field parameter M, local temperature Grashof number Gr, local nanoparticle Grashof Br, Prandtl number Pr, Dufour number Nd, Brownian motion parameter Nb, Thermophoresis parameter Nt, Lewis number Le, Sort number Ld, Chemical reaction parameter Rc, and Chemical reaction order m on those formula were discussed at the values of material parameters ( specially in the case of pure Coutte flow. Then, the effects of modified pressure gradients on those formulas were discussed in the case of pure Poiseuille flow and the generalized Couette flow. Also, an estimation of the global error for the numerical values of the solutions is calculated by using Zadunaisky technique.

Keywords Finite-difference method, Heat and Mass transfer, MHD flows, Non-Darcy Porous medium, Oldoryd 6-Constant non-Newtonian nano-Fluid.

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Process and Device for Generating High Purity Hydrogen Based on Hydrolysis Reaction of Aluminum Dross

Abstract-This paper presents an efficient process to generate hydrogen, using aluminum dross particles activated by mechano-chemical methods and tap water with a pH value ≥ 10.4, obtained by adding of NH3 aqueous solution 25 wt%/L. The effect of pH value and aluminum amount on hydrogen yield has been studied. For these tests pure aluminium particles and aluminum dross were employed, and SEM analysis was used to study the changes in surface properties of metal occurring due to metal hydrolysis and hydrogen release. The obtained results show that the rate of hydrogen generation increases with the increasing of pH value and aluminum quantity. A hydrogen continuous device was designed and operated. The economical and environmental key aspects associated with the production of hydrogen, using Al dross, are discussed. The data obtained in this research can provide the basis for scale implementation of the aluminum dross hydrolysis process to generate H2 of high purity (>99.5 vol.%).

Keywords: aluminum dross; aluminum-water reaction; hydrogen generating; tap water; mechano-chemical activation;

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Temperature Distribution and Numerical Modeling of Heat Transfer in Block 276 P1-Sand – Part I

Abstract Eugene Island (EI) 276 fields presents an interesting case study of overpressure caused by uncompacted porosity, in addition to heat. Mechanics of sand deposition, transgressive shale, surrounding faults, overlying shale barriers and underlying salt diapirs have caused temperature anomalies in the P1-sand. Plio-Pleistocene sandstone reservoirs are supplied with mature hydrocarbons by migration of fluids from overpressured shales upwards along an active fault system. The heat carried by climbing fluids and the existence of highly conductive salt diapirs generate strong temperature variances disturbing the entire mini-basin. A COMSOL Multiphysics thermal simulation model has been developed to duplicate temperature variation in well #12, drilled in the proximity of a fault and a salt diapir. Recorded temperatures show a variation in the order of 42 oF across a shale barrier separating the reservoir from top formation. Heat conduction originating from the salt dome was found to be the dominant heat transfer mechanism, transgressive shale and shale barriers contributed to entrapment and led to overheating.

Keywords Eugine Island, thermal analysis, heat transfer, temperature distribution.

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Analytical Study on RC Framed Structures on effect of Performance of Different types of Piles in Seismic Region

Abstract-This thesis includes Analytical Study on RC Framed Structures on effect of Performance of Pile Foundation in Seismic Region. For our design section of a RC framed residential high rise building we are comparing mass irregularities and vertical irregularities with respect to Time period, Frequency, Displacement, Storey Drift Ratio and Storey Shear for Friction pile and End Bearing Pile.

Keywords- End Bearing Pile, Friction Pile, Mass Irregularity, Pile Foundation, Vertical irregularity.

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Numerical Investigation of Over pressure Causes in Eugene Island P1 Sand – Part II

Abstract Eugene Initial reservoir pressures from well test information were found to be higher than the calculated hydrostatic pressures. Three wells in Block 276 P1-sand had higher observed pressures than what was expected, implying pore pressures greater than anticipated. It is thought that under compaction in shaly sand and thermal dissipation from salt diapirs are the main reasons causing over pressurization. Both effects have been studied and under compaction was found to be the dominant mechanism causing pore overpressure. Transgressive shale in P1-sand, resulting from ocean transgression, acted as plastic barriers; thereby, negating the transfer of lithostatic load to deeper formations. This has resulted in constant porosities with respect to depth. A developed COMSOL multiphysics model has also indicated that temperature effects from underlying salt diapers have also affected pore pressure and that pore over pressurization by conduction was found to range from 3 – 15%.

Keywords Eugine Island, transgressive shale, over pressure.

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A Study on Seismic Response of an Irregular Structure with Different Angle of Incidence

Abstract Earthquakes are a natural calamity, feared by most and cause great destruction in and around the seismic zone where they occur. In seismic design of buildings, the earthquake motions are considered in principle directions of building which may not be true in all cases. The present study is focused on the earthquake incidence angle and its effect on the structure’s column axial force and to obtain the critical angle using Non Linear Time History Analysis. A set of values from 0 to 90 degrees, with an increment of 10 degrees, have been used for angle of excitation. An asymmetrical structure of 10 storeys was considered. It can see that the critical angle may vary the column axial force from column to column. The models are analysed using ETABS 15 software. The structural parameters such as column axial force, displacement and story shear in columns are studied. The paper concludes that the internal forces of structural elements depend on the angle of incidence of seismic wave data. There are different critical angles for different parameters, not necessarily that it should be the same of the column axial force.

Keywords Incidence angle, Non Linear Time History, Column axial force, Displacement, Story shear.

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Analysis and Comparative Study of Unbonded Post-tensioned Cast-In-Place Parking Floor on the Effects of Tendon Layout using Safe

Abstract In recent years post-tensioned floors are commonly used for parking purposes in residential and commercial high rise buildings. This paper includes result on a study of un-bonded post tensioned cast-in-place parking floor subjected to various arrangements of tendon layout based on FEM analysis. Modelling and analysis of post-tensioned flat plate is done by using SAFE software. Equivalent loads based on cable profiles are applied to the flat plate according to the tendon layout. Design moments, service moments, hyper-static moments, short term deflection, long term deflection, and punching shear are compared for the various tendon layouts at service and ultimate limit state.

Keywords Post-Tensioned flat plate, SAFE, Tendons.

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Kinematic Surface Generated by an Equiform Motion of Astroid Curve

Abstract In this paper, a kinematic surface using equiform motion of an astroid curve in Euclidean 3-space E3 is generated. The main results given in this paper: the surface foliated by equiform motion of astroid curve has a constant Gaussian and mean curvatures if motion of astroids is in parallel planes. Also, the geodesic curves on this surface are obtained. Additionally, special Weingarten of such surface is investigated. Finally, for some special cases new examples are constructed and plotted.

2010 Mathematics subject classification:53A10, 53A04, 53C22 and 53A17.

Keywords Kinematic surfaces; equiform motion; Gaussian, mean and geodesic curvatures, Weingarten Surfaces.

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