Thursday, 3 October 2019

Engineering Journal: September 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-9, September 2019 with AD Publications

Modeling and Monitoring the Experimental Implant for Measuring the Ethanol Concentration

Abstract-In this set of experiments we have tried to monitor a system of three reactors placed in series through experimental measurements of the ethanol concentration, temperature, flow and pressure at the outlet of system. We compared the results when the system has different metallic tubes used between vessels. For each set of experiments, we have used tubes with 6 and 8 mm diameter because they influence the pressure drop in our system.

Keywords- Continuous system, Ethanol concentration, flow, pressure and temperature parameters.

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Tannic Acid-Terminated Poly(Propylene Oxide) as Efficient Dispersant for Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube to Prepare Highly Conductive Composites

AbstractIn this study, multi-functional tannic acid (TA) was incorporated with soft poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) chain to result in a TA-terminated JTA polymer, in which the TA terminals impart reversible aromatic p-p and hydrogen bond (H bond) interactions to JTA polymer. Moreover, the aromatic TA terminals of JTA can preferably bind to the surface carbon rings of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to result in JCTx composites containing large amounts (up to 96 wt%) of MWCNTs. The sorption isotherm study indicated a two-step sorption mechanism of the sorbed JTA on MWCNT. Dependent on the MWCNT content, JCTx composites can be healable elastomers with high fracture strain (up to 700%) or plastics with outstanding conductivity (up to 1.21×106 m-1). Experimental mechanical modulus and conductivity of JCTx also were approached by the theoretical Kolarik model and scaling law, respectively. The result was explained in term of morphological arrangement of the MWCNT, evaluated from scanning and transmission) electron microscopies in JTA matrix. This study provided theoretical evaluation of highly MWCNT-loaded composites.

KeywordsTannic acid, MWCNT, carbon material dispersion, p-p stacking, hydrogen bonding, conductive composite, Kolarik model, scaling law.

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Features of some interacting tropical cyclones in the Indian Ocean after the Mount Pinatubo eruption

Abstract The features of the impact of some tropical cyclones (TC) in the Indian Ocean on the environment after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo are considered. The 1992 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was unofficially the most active year on record for the basin, with 13 TC developing. It was shown that TC-05B, closing the chain of 10 TC before its destruction over the North Bay of Bengal, showed anomalous thunderstorm activity and contributed to the emergence of TC Aviona in South Indian Ocean. The strongest in season-92 TC-10B and TC Forrest, apparently, caused an earthquake in the Indian Ocean. At the same time, the strongest typhoons Hunt and Gay from 1979 to 2015 simultaneously developing in the Pacific Ocean caused the Burma Plate earthquake. Experimental data of anomalous features of the ionosphere during these events were obtained using the satellite Cosmos-1809.

Keywords Indian Ocean, Tropical Cyclone, Pinatubo.

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Novel Combinative Structure of High-Performance Solar Steam Device derived from Areca Nut

AbstractA novel combinative structure, consisting of lateral hydrophobic pontoon oAN and central hydrophilic evaporator iAN, was designed for high-performance solar steam device. Both oAM and the iAN were derived from areca nut (AN), through different thermal and surface chemical treatments. With inferior water absorption and evaporation efficiency, the pontoon oAN nevertheless provides footage for the entire device, in contrast, although being efficient in water adsorption and evaporation, iAN requires the supporting oAN to keep its buoyancy. We therefore combined advantages of oAN and iAn to assemble a solar steam device with long-term stability and high solar thermal efficiency of ∼82% under 1-sun illumination. The idea using combinative structure as efficient solar steam device can be further extended to other potential systems, therefore, this study provided foundation for future development of novel solar steam devices. importance.

KeywordsSolar steam generation, areca nut, pontoon, supporter, combinative structure.

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Discussion on Inexact Optimal Solution under Fuzzy Environment

AbstractThe purpose of this paper is to explain that a convex combination of several partial solutions using a new criterion which did not solve the fuzzy problem. The main feature of this paper is twofold. First, we prepare a simple optimization problem to explain the previously proposed approach that considered criteria separately. Consequently, we conclude, previous results are partial solutions. Secondly, we study the same optimization problem as the one that appears in a previously published paper. After his new criterion is added, we solve the new fuzzy optimization problem to demonstrate that the previous solution is not the optimal one. Hence, the previously proposed approach is questionable and then his assertion of the meaninglessness of the exact optimal solution for the fuzzy problem cannot be treated as a valid statement. At last, we cite a paper that had referred to the questionable approach which had been improved by another published article to support our argument.

Keywords—Fuzzy set, decision making, optimization, genetic algorithms, linear programming.

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Discussion of two motivations provided by Sphicas 2006

AbstractWe discuss two motivations proposed by Sphicas (2006). First, after Lin (2019), we provide another partition for the feasible domain to show that there are at least three partitions to point out that the first motivation of Lin (2019) is not sufficient to support his solution procedure. For the second motivation of Sphicas (2006), we provide a detailed examination from the algebraic point of view to claim that his second motivation containing severe questionable results. We suggest researchers presenting a primitive algebraic method for inventory models with fixed and linear backorder costs.

Keywords—Inventory models, algebraic method, fixed backorder cost, linear backorder cost.

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Discussion on Weighted Similarity Measure under Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets Environment

Abstract We analytically show that the findings of pattern recognition problems with weighted similarity measures under intuitionistic fuzzy sets environment that is dominated by relative weights of elements in the universe of discourse for the discrete case and the weighted function for the continuous case. In the past, researchers focus on constructing new similarity measures or developing new algorithms applying their similarity measures. Hence, previous results depended on a special weight to decide the pattern of the sample that may be required further considerations. How to select a proper weight will be an important issue for researchers in the future when deal with pattern recognition problems.

Keywords Pattern recognition, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, similarity measure.

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Sunday, 22 September 2019

Engineering Journal: August 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-8, August 2019 with AD Publications

Immobilization of Biotechnologically Important Candida rugosa Lipase onto Commercial Matrices

AbstractThe continual search for alternative environmentally cleaner technologies in industrial processes has led to an increase in the use of enzymatic processes globally. However, due to their physical characteristics they require immobilization in order to remain effective. The objective of this study was to investigate the immobilization of the biotechnologically important and commercially available Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) by physical interfacial adsorption onto a number of matrices to act as biocatalysts. Five different types of support were tested: i) macroporous silica (synthetic inorganic), ii) polyhydroxybutyrate (natural organic), iii) polypropylene (synthetic organic), iv) polymethacrylate (synthetic organic), and v) polystyrene-divinylbenzene (synthetic organic). Results generated during this study showed that from the group of materials tested, polystyrene-divinylbenzene gave the best results with the highest amount of immobilized protein (8.10 ± 0.31 mg/g) and a good immobilization yield (90.35% ± 1.53%). The efficiency of protein immobilization was found to be highest when carried out at pH4.5, which is close to the isoelectric point of the enzyme.

KeywordsBiocatalysts, Candida rugosa, immobilized protein, lipase, physical adsorption, support.

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Kinetic Characteristics for Reaction between Trichloroisocyanuric (TCCA) Acid with 2-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS)

Abstract The research experimental results determiningrateconstant of the reaction between TCCA and CS according to Arrhenius equation was studied. Basing the set of graphs showing the relationship between (ln(k) - (1/T)) and (ln (k/T) - (1/T)), the activation energy (Ea) according to the Arrhenius equation and activation enthalpy variation (∆H#), activationentropy variation (∆S#), free activation energy Gibss (∆G#) according to the Eyring equation are determined. The products of TCCA reaction and CS at pH = 9 are2-chloro benzaldehyde oxirane-2,2-dicarbonitrile, 3-(2-chlorophenyl) so predicting the reaction mechanism consists of two reactions taking place in parallel, a hydrolysisand oxidation reactions.

Keywords Trichloroisocyanuric acid, 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile, Kinetic characteristics.

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Design Parameters and Conceptual Analysis on Gas Resource and Infrastructure Management: Trans-Nigeria Gas Pipeline Projects in Nigeria

Abstract Gas pipeline network and indeed gas infrastructures in the industry are liken to arteries and veins of the body. Blood circulation in the body systems travels through arteries and veins while gas resource travel through network of pipes for industrial and domestic purposes. Nigerian dependency on oil in the last 50years, has been characterised with reserves depletion and infrastructural decays. Therefore, the urgent intervention for Gas Domestication Project cannot be over emphasised. There are endless investment opportunities that abound in the natural gas sector of the Nigerian petroleum industry. At present, the annual gas production in Nigeria is about 2000 BSFC which is remarkable for an oil dominated economy (Figures 1, 2 and 3). Therefore, the initiatives for sustainable gas domestication projects such as the Calabar -Umuahia – Ajaokuta (CUA) and the Ajaokuta – Abuja – Kano (AAK) are laudable in terms of boosting economic resources for future investments. The rapid quests for industrial development of the country necessitate the conceptualization of the Trans Nigerian Gas Pipeline Projects. The project was divided into two segments the Calabar – Umuahia – Ajaokuta (CUA) trunk and the Ajaokuta - Abuja - Kaduna –Kano (AAK) trunk line respectively. The CUA is a 681km, 56” underground single-phase pipeline while the AAK is a 585km, 56” underground single-phase pipeline respectively. The spur lines were design to withstand maximum of 24”and minimum of 22”respectively. The entire project cycle from conceptualization, design and completion were undertaken within two years with about eighty-five (85%) per cent Nigerian Content. The Nigerian engineers and scientists in collaboration with the consultants, deliver the project on schedule (Table 1). The implementation strategy was predicated on the utilization of Critical Path Method (CPM) and Site Man-hour and Cost Control (SMAC) approach for project scheduling, monitoring and evaluation as well as cost control activities all through the duration,(Equations 1-6). Risk determination and safety checks were carried out at each stage for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Front End Engineering Design (FEED), Detailed Engineering Design (DEED), Hazop and Hazid Safety processes, Helicopter Overfly and Right of way Mapping, Cost and Constructability Review and Invitation To Bid (ITB) documentation etc were scheduled and completed. Timely completion of the engineering design and documentation of the project was fundamental to the procurement and construction of the pipeline network. Procurement and construction work schedule are expected to increase industrial development of the country. Efficient gas utilization through gas to power projects, industrial parks along the gas pipeline routes is also affected. This study is expedient in the actual analysis and review of the initial engineering design and safety codes with a view to ensuring compliance with industry standards. The study is also significant as reference material for the actualization of the vision of designing and constructing a world class Trans-Nigerian gas pipeline projects. It will also serve asa reference material for administrators and decision makers on effective deployment and management of resources on gas pipeline projects in Nigeria.

Keywords— Conceptual Analysis, Critical Path Method, Site Man Hour and Cost Control, Infrastructure Management, Right-of-Way, Design Parameters, Environmental Impact Analysis.

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Facile fabrication of PDMS microspheres with and without fluorescent dye doping

AbstractPoly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) microspheres are increasingly gaining importance for a wide range of applications due to their flexibility and inertness. In this paper, we have fabricated PDMS microspheres using facile emulsion formation in water by stirring with and without additional ultrasonic excitation. It was found that the particle size distribution, which can be attributed to the formation rate of cross-linked PDMS networks in the hydrophobic microspheres, depends on the temperature of the aqueous medium. Swelling of the microspheres in acetone was suggested by permeabilization as evidenced by diffusion and encapsulation of fluorescent dyes within the PDMS. Using scanning electron microscopy, the surface morphology of the spheres was confirmed to have no surface roughness or irregularity. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that the encapsulated dyes randomly and thus uniformly distributed themselves within the cross-linked PDMS networks and retained the fluorescent properties and characteristic emission color, implying their potential for drug carrier.

Keywordspoly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), microspheres, swelling, encapsulation, fluorescent dyes.

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Engineering Journal: July 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-7, July 2019 with AD Publications

Smart and Economical Scheme for Electrical Power Generation

Abstract This article advises a simple and innovative scheme for generating electricity from human activities. A simple and robust approach is proposed for converting human walking into valuable electricity source. The proposed scheme could be sufficient for powering small portable devices and providing independent power supply. Matlab and Simulink dynamic platform are used for stimulating the systems under concern. The prototype results validate the simulation results. The proposed scheme proofed to be valuable, economical and reliable power supply.

Keywords— Pressure, Energy converter, Electricity, Boost converter, Portable.

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Manual Correction of Myopia, Hypermetropia, Astigmatism, Presbyopia & Keratoconus.

Abstract— A new method has been designed to correct myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism and presbyopia of very high power. If 1mm of cornea is tucked, then it corrects 3.174 D & If 1mm of horizontal diameter of cornea is reduced, then it corrects +4.1D. This procedure is reliable, safe, cheapest and simplest. Because of the use of simple procedure to split the cornea, adjustable nonabsorbable sutures, correction of very high myopia and hypermetropia along with astigmatism and presbyopia, the procedure is expected to be accepted.

Keywords— Arc of cornea, chord, angle of arc, myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, formula.

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Synthesis and Properties of Asymmetric Polyamidosulfoimides on the Basis of Dichloroanhydrides of Saccharin-5-Carboxylic Acids and Aliphatic Diamines

Abstract By polycondensation of dichloroanhydride of saccharin-5-carboxylic acids with aliphatic diamines in dimethylacetamide at room temperature the asymmetric polyamidosulfoimide has been synthesized. The influence of nature of solvent, concentration of the initial reagents and reaction temperature on value of characteristic viscosity and also on solubility, thermal stability and deformation-strength properties of the synthesized polyamidosulfoimides has been investigated. It has been elucidated that a growth of a quantity of methylene groups in the polymer leads to the improvement of solubility of the polymers in dimethylformamide and dimethylacetamide, but at the same time leads to the relative deterioration of thermal stability.

Keywords aliphatic diamines, dichloroanhydride of saccharin-carboxylic acids, polyamidosulfoimide, saccharin-5-carboxylic acid.

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Approximate 3-D model for analysis of laminated plates with arbitrary lay-ups, loading and boundary conditions

AbstractAvailable exact solution techniques of elasto-static problems entail limitations on the choice of lay-ups, loading and boundary conditions and impose restrictions on strain and stress fields as well, to overcome algebraic difficulties inherent to modeling of laminated and sandwich composites. Therefore in fact they become unsuitable for testing accuracy of modern laminated plate theories aiming to very accurately describing 3-D stress fields in real conditions of use of multilayered composites, nowadays widespread in engineering applications. To overcome the assumption of too restrictive hypotheses, an approximate 3-D solution technique is proposed and assessed that is able to automatically solve problems which due to the lay-ups, loading and boundary conditions assumed would not be solved with the exact techniques available. A quite general, accurate structural model is developed that comes to constitute a generalization of available physically-based zig-zag theories, being free from through-thickness assumptions and because zig-zag functions are not explicitly contained, the layerwise contributions being represented by the redefinition of coefficients of the through-thickness series expansion. It is based solely on the prescriptions of the theory of elasticity, i.e., displacement and stress compatibility at interfaces, fulfillment of local equilibrium equations at points across the thickness and of stress boundary constraints. A truncated expansion series of trial functions and unknown amplitudes is used to represent variables, whose coefficients are determined in exact form using a symbolic calculus tool that enforces all elasticity constraints and in conjunction with Rayleigh-Ritz and Lagrange multipliers methods.

KeywordsComposite and sandwich plates, zig-zag theories, interlaminar transverse shear/normal stress continuity, localized and distributed loadings, FEA 3-D, elastostatic solutions.

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Saturday, 21 September 2019

Engineering Journal: June 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-6, June 2019 with AD Publications

A Quasi Experimental Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Knowledge of Primary School Teachers Regarding Selected Emotional and Behavioural Disorders of Children in Selected School of Karauli District Rajasthan

Abstract The finding of the present study were analyzed and discussed with finding of similar studies. This helped the investigator to prove that the findings were true and the planned teaching programme was effective in improving knowledge of Primary School Teachers. It included statement, objective, assumption, hypothesis and tool used for the study and findings.

The study made use of a quasi- experimental approach with one group pre-test and post-test design. The population of the study consisted of Primary School Teachers at selected school of Alwar. Convenient sampling technique was utilized to select 158 Primary School Teachers based on certain pre-determined criteria.

Keywords— Emotional behavior disorder, behavioral disorder, karauli district study, children early age growth, children behavior, health care of children.

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Free-Radical Nonbranched-Chain Hydrogen Oxidation

Abstract New reaction scheme is suggested for the initiated nonbranched-chain addition of hydrogen atoms to the multiple bond of the molecular oxygen. The scheme includes the addition reaction of the hydroperoxyl free radical to the oxygen molecule to form the hydrotetraoxyl free radical which is relatively low-reactive and inhibits the chain process by shortening of the kinetic chain length. This reaction competes with chain propagation reactions through a hydrogen atom. Based on the proposed scheme rate equations (containing one to three parameters to be determined directly) are deduced using quasi-steady-state treatment. The kinetic description with use the obtained rate equations is applied to the γ-induced nonbranched-chain process of the free-radical oxidation of hydrogen dissolved in water containing different amounts of oxygen at 296 K. The ratio of rate constants of competing reactions and the rate constant of the addition reaction to the molecular oxygen are defined. In this process the oxygen with the increase of its concentration begins to act as an oxidation autoinhibitor (or an antioxidant), and the rate of hydrogen peroxide formation as a function of the dissolved oxygen concentration has a maximum. From the energetic standpoint possible nonchain pathways of the free-radical oxidation of hydrogen and the routes of ozone decay via the reaction with the hydroxyl free radical (including the addition yielding the hydrotetraoxyl free radical) in the Earth’s upper atmosphere were considered.

Keywords competition, hydrogen, low-reactive hydrotetraoxyl free radical, thermochemical data, energy.

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Zig-zag theories differently accounting for layerwise effects of multilayered composites

AbstractThis paper essays the effects of the choice of through-thickness representation of variables and of zig-zag functions within a general theory by the authors from which the theories considered are particularized. Characteristic feature, coefficients are calculated using symbolic calculus, so to enable an arbitrary choice of the representation. Such choice and that of zig-zag functions is shown to be always immaterial whenever coefficients are recalculated across the thickness by enforcing the fulfillment of elasticity theory constraints. Assigning a specific role to each coefficient is shown immaterial. Moreover, the order of representation of displacements can be freely exchanged with one another and, most important, zig-zag functions can be omitted if part of coefficients are calculated enforcing the interfacial stress field compatibility. Vice versa, accuracy of theories that only partially satisfy constraints, is shown to be strongly dependent upon the assumptions made. Applications to laminated and soft-core sandwich plates and beams having different length-to-thickness ratios, different material properties and thickness of constituent layers, various boundary conditions and distributed or localized loading are presented. Solutions are found in analytic form assuming the same trial functions and expansion order for all theories. Numerical results show which simplifications are yet accurate and therefore admissible.

KeywordsComposite and sandwich plates, zig-zag theories, interlaminar transverse shear/normal stress continuity, localized and distributed loadings, FEA 3-D elastostatic solutions.

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Engineering Journal: May 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-5, May 2019 with AD Publications

Characterization of Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Animal & Plant Wastes

Abstract— The negative impact of the increased use of fossil fuels for energy generation and consumption has reached a global dimension and can no longer be over looked. All efforts are now being geared towards an alternative source of energy, renewable in nature and more environmental friendly in use. This study investigates the production of biogas – a renewable energy from the anaerobic digestion of three different types of biodegradable wastes (Cassava peelings and poultry droppings, Beans waste and poultry droppings, Cassava peelings and beans wastes) as an alternative to fossil fuels for energy consumption. The study was carried out using a 0.1m3 capacity biogas digester constructed to investigate the anaerobic digestion in generating biogas. The experiment was batch operated and daily gas yield from the plant was monitored for 24 days. During this period, many operation factors were monitored to determine the effect each of them has on the biogas generation. These factors monitored are temperature changes, Pressure changes, pH changes, changes in alkality, Cassava peelings and poultry dropping generated the highest maximum biogas of 0.035m2/kg/day at a PH value of 7.35 on the 19th day. This was followed by poultry droppings and beans mixture. Cassava peelings and beans waste had the least volume of biogas. This treatise assets that biogas is not only a renewable energy source but has a dual function of waste management in the course of its production.

Keywords Biogas, Renewable energy, Anaerobic Digestion, Waste, Fossil.

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FMEA Methodology Capabilities in Environmental Risk Management

Abstract The paper asserts convincingly the appropriateness of the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) methodology for risk identification and minimization activities based on the analysis of potential process inconsistencies disclosed through a quantitative analysis of cause-and-effect discrepancies. Advanced in the paper is also an in-depth analysis of FMEA methodology applicability for the development of new projects and technologies, for production process and product quality planning analyses and takes a closer look of FMEA methodology capabilities in environmental risk management.

Keywords FMEA, methodology, analysis, process, environmental risk.

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Motion of A Rocket in Three-Dimension with Constant Thrust Over A Spherical Rotating Earth Holding Constant Heading and Constant Path Inclination

Abstract In this paper we have determined the velocity and altitude of a spacecraft and then equation of its trajectory with constant thrust, constant heading and constant path-inclination by regulating the bank angle and angle of attack.

Keywords Path inclination, constant, relative, rotating, spherical, Bessel's equation, angular velocity, thrust, rocket.

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Study of association between pre-test knowledge and selected demographic variables of Primary School Teachers regarding selected emotional and behavioural disorders of children.

Abstract The early years of a child’s life are very important for his or her health and development. Healthy development means that children of all abilities, including those with special health care needs, are able to grow up where their social, emotional and educational needs are met. Having a safe and loving home and spending time with family―playing, singing, reading, and talking―are very important. Proper nutrition, exercise, and sleep also can make a big difference.

Children's emotional and behavioural disorders are disorders that affect not only children’s behaviour, emotions, moods, or thoughts, but can also affect the entire family as well. The established pattern of emotional or behavioral responses might adversely affect educational or developmental performance including intrapersonal, academic, vocational or social skills.

Keywords— children early age growth, children behavior, health care of children.

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Engineering Journal: April 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-4, April 2019 with AD Publications

A Review: Use of Geo-grid in Construction of Flyover

Abstract A pavement structure consists of numerous layers out of which sub-grade plays a vital role for the very first purpose of distributing and transmitting traffic loads coming over it to the strata underneath. What’s more if layer of sub-grade in pavement comprises of extensive soil i.e. soil containing montmorilonite mineral, at that point because of changes in water content and consequent swelling and shrinkage that may result into numerous of failure resulting into rutting, bumps, reduction in bearing capacity of pavement. Changing the available soil probably won’t be a reasonable alternative, therefore to defeat all these hurduls, use of geo-synthetics is found to be the best solution resulting into better performance by reduction in cost and reduction in vertical deformation of pavement structures over sub grades of shifted strengths. Anyway the choice of stabilizer relies on the sort of sub-grade’s soil, sort of soil-improvement wanted, accessibility to stabilizer, ecological conditions, quality needed and toughness of balanced-out layer, various stabilizing procedures, and the most critical is money related factor. Geo-synthetics are generally utilized for some activities in particulars as filtration, partition, safety, drainage, fixing and so on. Especially for the last case, geo-synthetics with extra highlights have been created permitting a changeless checking of the deformations. Future geo-synthesis will be outfitted with such extra capabilities empowering a non-ruinous and changeless observing of structures worked with geo-synthetics. At any rate, geo-grid fortified construction represents momentous favorable circumstances regarding natural and monetary perspectives against the structures. It is likewise outstanding from field tests and wide-extend testing that geo-synthetic fortified contractions have a lot higher bearing strength than anticipated and that the distortions are too low than expectation. This paper went through the craft by different analysts on the strategies of adjustment of soil & utilization of geo-manufactured materials in quality improving.

Keywords Geo-grids, Geo-synthetics reinforcement, Sub-grade, Stabilization and improving strength of soil.

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At-Speed test Prominence

Abstract With the remarkable scaling down of technology, test engineers are encountered with new challenges. With the reduction technology moving down to Deep Submicron level, the digital designs are moving closer to the probability of defects related to time. The traditional Stuck-at tests and IDDQ tests can no more detect few distinctive faults which may be occurring due to issues related to timing of the signal. The defect spectrum is thus broadened by the inclusion of other types of faults such as high impedance shorts, in-line resistance, and cross-talk between signals. This paper proposes the use of At-Speed test which is better suited to detect the new types of failures that occur in a digital circuit due to its complex design. The use of At-speed test ensures the timing reliability of the chip after manufacturing thereby reducing DPM (Defect per million) rate. At-speed tests when added with the traditional stuck-at tests, guarantees maximum fault coverage and reduced DPM rates (@30 to 70%). Though At-speed testing is not a new concept and few ASIC vendors have been using this, they have been using functional test patterns to create them which are a very tedious and time consuming routine. Diagnosing the failure source also becomes difficult with the failure of functional patterns. This paper discusses about the fault models provided by industries leading ATPG tools that targets the At-speed failure.

Keywords At-Speed test, functional test patterns, fault coverage, Stuck-At-Test, IDDQ Tests.

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A Computer-Aided Justice Management System: A prototype for Universities in Uganda

Abstract Justice Management in any organisation is recipe for proper management and organisational prosperity. As error is to human, disputes are inevitable but should be resolved amicably. With a focus on higher institutions of learning justice administration and management is handy in managing competition and so profit maximization especially in the current privatization of higher education. The study aimed at designing a prototype for universities which ultimately helps local citizens to interpret law. Six universities were purposively selected and a cross sectional and design science research methodology employed. The study found that if improved the proposed justice management system would significantly reduce the prevailing challenges of case backlog, losses and postponed hearing records, timely and responsiveness of summons among others. However, in future the small messaging system (SMS) enabled systems could also be considered together with translator into major local languages.

Keywords Justice, Dispute, Rights, Electronic.

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Cost Effective Energy Monitoring System

Abstract Remote energy meter monitoring is an advanced energy meter formulated by our own which will overcome the problems faced in conventional metering system such as human interference which leads to incorrect billing. In this energy meter advanced technologies such as ARM microcontroller, Raspberry Pi, ADC, Seven segment display (SSD), Cloud (Thing Speak) have been used. This is the new device which is using CY8C4247AZI-M485 ARM Microcontroller and will display voltage, current, and power on SSD and send data on IoT cloud Platform through Raspberry Pi. It can be implemented for residential as well as for industrial purpose. The developed system replaces traditional meter reading methods and enables remote access of existing energy meter by the energy provider. Also it can monitor the meter readings regularly without the person visiting each house. The system collects and manages energy consumption data and provides billing information for the user. A user can easily monitor, manage, and control energy consumption and achieve energy cost saving using the proposed scheme.

Keywords ARM Microcontroller, Automatic Meter Reading System, Electronic Metering, IoT Cloud, Raspberry Pi 3b Model, Smart Meter.

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Tuesday, 5 March 2019

Engineering Journal: February 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-12, December 2018 with AD Publications

Comparison of Two Technologies in Hot Water Preparation in Terms of Source Location

Abstract - The present article describes two different types of technology used in hot water preparation, their advantages and disadvantages, spatial requirements and measuring technology. The facts described herein may be used when deciding on which technology should be used for which type of hot water supply and central heating.

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Performance evaluation of Activated Sludge Process in Dairy Waste water Treatment

Abstract Wastewater from dairy industries generally has oils and greases in high concentration and contains high concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This experimental study is being initiated to evaluate an Activated Sludge Process (ASP) with mixed bacteria for dairy waste water treatment. A three phase study was carried out by varying hydraulic retention time (HRT). The study is being undertaken in two steps in which the bacteria is being cultured in a medium by the process of acclimatization. The later stage will be the determination of the operating parameters. The characteristics of dairy industry waste water were studied and the performance was analyzed. A lab-scale ASP was set up for the study of the performance in treatment of effluent. The effect of various aeration time phases were analyzed in the lab scale Aeration Process for the HRT time of (2, 4, 6) hrs respectively. ASP efficiently removes BOD, COD and nutrients when designed and professionally operated according to local requirements. From the effects of various HRT, the 6 hrs HRT was more efficient in removal of the organic matter. The removal efficiency of COD, BOD and TSS were 97%, 97.5% and 96% respectively. In this process all the parameters were within the standard discharge limits. Hence, the enhancement of organic removal from dairy effluent using ASP was found feasible

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A brief review on augmented reality based google glass

AbstractAugmented reality that is Wearable technology is fast becoming a part of our technological life. There are many devices, from dresses to headphones that can record your day-to- day life. The maturing field of wearable computing aims to inter- weave computing devices into everyday life. This report focuses on smart glasses, one of the categories of wearable computing devices which is present in the media. This paper provides a concise overview of the history and context of Glass based on AR technology. The intended purpose of smart Glass products would be the hands-free displaying of information currently available to most smartphone users, and allowing for interaction with the Internet via natural language voice commands.

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Statistical Analysis Approach to Reduce Inter Channel Interference by using Kalaman Filter in term of BER & SNR

Abstract Many wireless networks have adapted the same communication approach. The OFDM communication is very much inspired from the channel frequencies over the network. In such a network some kind of orthogonal distortion occurs over the channel called Inter Carrier Interference. In this work, we are presenting the concept of mathematical model called Kalman filter to analyze the signal interference and to resolve the problem. In first phase the signal is analyzed for the disruption using Kalman filter and adaptive filter is implemented to reduce the ICI over the signal. The mathematical analysis is performed by using Extended Kalman filter. The result analysis has been performed with respect to BER and the SNR. A novel spatial Kalman filtering scheme is proposed as the second stage to successively cancel the ICI. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed two-stage method and its robustness to channel estimation uncertainties that may arise in practical systems.

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Engineering Journal: January 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-12, December 2018 with AD Publications

Primary Investigation of Small-medium cities' Property Management Charging Difficulty

Abstract— As property management fee is the blood guaranteeing normal operation of property management activities, as well as a big issue involving the immediate interests of owners and real estate users, it receives great concern by owners and real estate management companies. In addition, it is a common phenomenon in the industry that property management fee collection is difficult. Directly related to the survival and development of real estate industry, it will also influence residential owners' comfortable housing and stability of residential area construction.

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The Implementation and Countermeasures of Green Property Management in Sanmenxia City under the Background of Urbanization

Abstract— Promoting the concept of green property management is based on the construction of Green House under the background of urbanization and the owner's demand for green consumption. Taking Sanmenxia as an example, the implementation of green properties reflects people's requirements for living environment. Meanwhile, property management has transformed from a one-way management model to a comprehensive management efficiency model. The model of property management is also developing towards green property management.

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A Game Theoretic Framework for Cognitive Radio Networks Using Adaptive Channel Allocation Spectrum

Abstract— In this research, we propose a game theoretic framework to investigate the behavior of the cognitive radio networks for distributed adaptive channel allocation. We illustrate two separate objective functions for spectrum sharing games, which capture the benefit of selfish users and cooperative users, respectively. Based on utility definition for cooperative users, we determine that the channel allocation problem can be formed as the potential game, and converges to a deterministic channel allocation Nash equilibrium point. Alternatively, no regret learning implementation is proposed for both scenarios. Also, it is pointed to have similar performance with the possible game when cooperation is expected, but with a higher variability beyond users. The no regret learning formulation is beneficial to accommodate selfish users. Non-cooperative learning games have very low overhead for information interchange in the network. We point that cooperation-based spectrum sharing protocol improves the overall network performance at expense of an extended overhead needed for information exchange.

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Feeding Habits, Length-Weight Relation, and Growth Pattern of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) from The Rice Field of Jejangkit Muara Village, Barito Kuala Regency, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

Abstract—The research about "feeding habits, length-weight relationship and growth pattern of snakehead fish which caught in rice field JejangkitMuara, South Kalimantan" had been done during June-August 2018which divides into two parts: rice field JejangkitMuara village, Barito Kuala regency, South Kalimantan province for sampling, and identification at Fish Nutrition Laboratory, Aquaculture Department, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine, LambungMangkurat University, Banjarbaru. The aims of the research were to analyze feeding habits, relation between length-weight and growth pattern of snakehead fish (Channastriata) which caught in rice field JejangkitMuara village, Barito Kuala regency, South Kalimantan province. The results of the research showed that the length-weight relation with formula W = 0.8191 L 0,7762with value of r = 0.321092 which mean that length-weight relationships indicated the pattern of negative allometric type of growth (b<3). Snakehead fish has the fish as their primary feeding habits.

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Monday, 4 March 2019

Engineering Journal: December 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-12, December 2018 with AD Publications

Composition Determination of Corrosion Products from Downhole Tubular of a Sour Gas Well Using new XRD and WDXRF Procedures and Configurations

AbstractCorrosion study and control of downhole tubing and casing are critical for the economical and safe operation of oil and gas wells. Chemical composition investigation of corrosion products plays a key role in the identification of the corrosion mechanism and the determination of its root cause. In this study, the analytical techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry were used to determine the chemical composition of corrosion products formed on the pulled-out-of-hole (POOH) flow coupling and full joints of a sour gas well in Saudi Arabia. The samples were in the form of metal cuts and could not be prepared with the routine method for XRD and WDXRF analysis. These unconventional samples were handled using an adapted XRD configuration: X-ray point focus rather than line focus and an open eulerian cradle. With the new setup, XRD phase identification and quantification were successfully performed. It was found that the outer diameter surface of the pulled flow coupling and full joints consisted mainly of iron oxides whereas the inner diameter surface consisted mainly of iron sulfides. The XRD findings were further confirmed by WDXRF analysis. The findings suggested that the corrosion products were formed under different conditions.

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The optimal configuration of turbines location in a wind farm using a Genetic Algorithm

Abstract The placement of wind turbines is a key technology for wind farm configuration, but the automatic placement of turbines is always still a difficult problem. The objective of every wind farm designer is producing as maximum as possible of energy, with minimal cost of installation The improved wind and turbine models are formulated into an optimal control framework in terms of minimizing the cost per unit energy of the wind farm. In this study, a code Wind Farm Optimization using a Genetic Algorithm (WFOAG) is developed for optimizing the placement of wind turbines in wind farm to minimize the cost per unit power produced from the wind farm. A genetic algorithm is employed for the optimization. WFOAG is validated using the results from previous studies.

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Improvement of Biometric Authentication System Applying Fingerprint

Abstract.The biometric system plays an important role in everyone life. To identify one identity, the finger is one of many forms of the biometrics are generally used. The fingerprint is the verified function to identify a match between two person’s fingerprints. Here a simple and effective system for biometric fingerprint based voter identity system has been proposed that is based on image enhancement and correct minutiae extraction. Automatic and reliable extraction of minutiae from fingerprint images is a critical step in fingerprint matching. In this research a fast fingerprint enhancement and minutiae extraction algorithm have been presented which improve the clarity of the ridge and valley structures of the input fingerprint images based on the frequency and orientation of the local ridges and thereby extracting correct minutiae.

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Kalman Filter Based Approach of a signal by removing ICI for OFDM Channel

Abstract This paper deals with the case of a high speed mobile receiver operating in an orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system. The OFDM communication is very much inspired from the channel frequencies over the network. In such network some kind of orthogonal distortion occurs over the channel called Inter carrier Interference. Here we will improve the ICI using Kalman Filtering improved by using repetitive slot and correlated channel tap.

The proposed work of this paper is when data travel over some channel it suffers from the problem of interference. The interference results the high signal to noise ratio as well as high bit error rate. The proposed system will improved the signal by removing the different kind of impurities over the signal. These impurities include the ICI, PAPR and the noise over the signal. The signal will be more effective than standard OFDM. So we needn't many pilot symbols in practice, still can ensure the algorithm performance and reduce the time- delay and complexity of this algorithm.

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Engineering Journal: November 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-11, November 2018 with AD Publications

Constructing an Algorithm for Selecting the Number of Histogram Bins in Statistical Hypothesis Testing for Normal Distribution of Sample Data

Abstract Practice, on the whole, makes extensive use of the vast range of assumptions and conjectures in regards to the type of frequency distribution in statistical samples, the deviations from which would significantly affect the qualities of the model and the estimation accuracy of its parameters. Regrettably, a reliable and clearly defined criterion as to their permissibility is completely absent.

For instance the fish stock assessment procedure is initially based on assumption that the frequencies in the length-frequency samples used for estimation of growth parameters of fish and analysis of the stock status are normally distributed or follow approximately the normal distribution [15,17].

The purpose of the present study is to construct an algorithm for identification of the statistical distribution of a random variable focusing on the proper selection of the number of histogram bins and further assessment of its impact on the stochastic models delivered. To that effect, appropriate simulation studies have been carried out to compensate for the lack of any concrete evidence related to the potential impact of the number of bins in the histogram and the overall data accuracy on the results of the application of the statistical criterion for the verification of the law of distribution. Applied has been the direct statistical method for determining the law of the distribution - chi-square criteria along with some indirect methods. Provided for the simulation studies were machine-generated data sets and the relevant simulations were held in MATLAB programming environment.

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Experimental Research of Thermal Resistance of Hot Water Heater Insulation

Abstract - The present article describes the experimental measurements of thermal resistance of the PUR insulation installed in the selected type of hot water heaters that are necessary for the purpose of identification of heat output or heat loss in the given heater.

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Application of Physical Similarity in the Transfer of Results from a Model to a Prototype

Abstract - The process of heat distribution through heat networks is accompanied with significant loss. That is why distributors of heat and hot water are nowadays very interested in these issues. The drawbacks of the existing methods of heal loss calculation brought the necessity of searching new procedures of such calculation.

The article presents a possibility of using the similarity theory and modelling in order to transpose results from an experimental heat network to any other network that will be similar to the experimental network with regard geometry, kinematics, as well as heat parameters.

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Material Conversion of Waste Aluminoborosilicate Glass into Faujasite-type Zeolite using Alkali Fusion

AbstractA large amount of liquid crystal display (LCD) television becomes popular for the last decades, and the amount of waste LCD panels will increase soon. LCD panels mainly consist of aluminoborosilicate glass, and it is difficult to recycle aluminoborosilicate glass using the same recycling method of soda-lime glass, due to the high strain point. Therefore, a novel recycling method for aluminoborosilicate is desired. In this study, we attempted to convert waste aluminoborosilicate glass powder into faujasite-type zeolite using alkali fusion method. Waste aluminoborosilicate glass powder (< 300 μm) were mixed with NaOH powder (the weight ratio of NaOH / aluminoborosilicate = 1.0 - 2.0), and then heated at 100 – 800 oC for 0.5 - 7 h to make a fused material with high solubility. This fused material was agitated in distilled water for one day, then heated at 80 oC for 24 hours to synthesize zeolite product. Most of the aluminoborosilicate glass were converted into soluble phases by alkali fusion with NaOH (NaOH / sample = 1.5) at 400 oC for 0.5 h, and could be transformed into faujasite-type zeolite. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the zeolite product is 1.9 mmol/g, which is 31 times higher than that of raw glass powder, and is 59% of CEC for commercial faujasite-type zeolite 13X (3.2 mmol/g). Zeolitization process from agitated material can be explained by theconcentrations of Si, Al and B in the product and the crystallinity of faujasite-typezeolite in the product.

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Cybernetic Approach to Fisheries Management

Abstract The management of the living marine resources (stocks) exploitation entails the pursuit of a science-based policy in order to preserve the reproductive capacity of the stocks and their sustainable development in the course of time i.e. maintaining the stocks biomass levels within safe biological limits [27,28].

The excessive increase in catches (fishing effort) due to unscrupulous exploitation can result in irreversibly collapsed biological basis for their existence [19,27,28]. The situation thus created is further exacerbated by the incomplete or poor-quality information about the development of the stocks potential. The present paper advances the adoption of cybernetic approach to the analysis of the management and exploitation of the living marine resources. Proposed also is a block diagram of the stock management system in a context of uncertainty and the use of the precautionary approach and step algorithm for the collection, analysis, processing of information and evaluation of the parameters and the reference biological indicators of the respective biological objects, on the basis of which the target (the target management indicator) is to be set.

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Engineering Journal: October 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-10, October 2018 with AD Publications

Comparison of carbon nanotube and soot reinforced rubber mixtures and their mechanical-morphological properties

Abstract In our study, we investigated 2 different natural rubber mixtures with CNT’s and shoot. The aim was to compare the results of samples and their mechanical effects with a shore. A hardness tester, a tensile strength instrument before and after vulcanisation (t=30; 60; and 90minutes) during the UV-ageing processes. The hardness results represented the different after the degradation process that was 10 % different between the samples.

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Simultaneous analysis of nitro compounds by Voltammetric method combined with the principal component regression (PCR)

Abstract The ability to simultaneously determine 6 nitro compounds including nitrobenzene (NB), 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 3-nitrophenol (3-NP), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), 2,4- dinitrophenol (DNP) and trinitrophenol (TNT) in the same samples was investigated by differential pulse Voltammetry on hanging mercury drop electrodes (HMDE), in acetate buffer of pH 4.6. It was found that peak potentials of voltammetric reduction waves of NB, 2-NP, 3-NP and 4-NP appeared at - 0.297, - 0.251, - 0.267 and - 0.337 V respectively. Under the same conditions there are three peak potentials at -0.076, - 0.161, - 0.267 V for TNT and two peaks at tại - 0.176, - 0.282V for DNT. The peaks of these compounds are very close together. Due to the serious overlapping of Voltammetric peaks of these compounds in the mixtures, so that by a conventional Voltammetry it not possible to individually determine each compound. In this study, the linear multivariate regression method such as principal component regression (PCR) was used to resolve the overlapped Voltammograms. The obtained relative standard error (RSEt) of method is less 10%. The percent of recoveries were within ± 10% of the target value. The developed method was then applied to the analysis of these nitro-substituted aromatic compounds in field samples with similar satisfactory results.

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Isopropyl myristate continuous synthesis in a packed-bed reactor using lipase immobilized on magnetic polymer matrix

Abstract The aim of this study was to synthesize isopropyl myristate, an emollient ester, in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor using Candida antarctica lipase immobilized on poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrix prepared by suspension polymerization and magnetized by co-precipitation of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in alkaline medium. To determine the best esterification conditions, we investigated the effects of acid/alcohol molar ratio (1:5, 1:10, and 1:15) on reaction yield in shake flasks. The three tested conditions provided similar results, esterification yields of approximately 80%. An acid/alcohol molar ratio of 1:15 was chosen for further experiments because it allowed for better operability of the bioreactor. Subsequently, we compared the reactor performance in up flow and down flow modes. This experiment showed that greater ease of operation was achieved with down flow operation. We also evaluated the influence of space time (8 and 20 h) on reaction yield and productivity. A space time of 8 h provided better results. An experimental system consisting of two bioreactors and a molecular sieve packed column was used to remove the water formed during esterification and thus increase the yield of isopropyl myristate. There was a significant improvement in performance with the use of the two-stage system, which resulted in almost complete conversion of reagents, an increase of about 150% in biocatalyst half-life, and an isopropyl myristate productivity of 25 g L−1 h−1, confirming the beneficial effect of adding a water extraction column to the experimental system.

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Engineering Journal: September 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-9, September 2018 with AD Publications

Study on Impact of Biomedical Engineering in Dentistry

Abstract Dentistry is a major branch of medicine. It deals with the study and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of the oral cavity, adjacent structures and tissues [1]. Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering science that deals with the application of engineering principles in the field of biology and medicine for the betterment of health [2]. Being an ancient branch of medicine, dentistry largely needs a lot of technical instruments for its purpose to serve its patients [3].

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Comparative Study of Bit Error Rate in LDPC Based OFDM System over AWGN Channels

Abstract Modern communication systems are increasingly adopting new Morden technologies like OFDM and LDPC for achieving high performance, low Bit Error Rate (BER) and high capacity. The OFDM communication is very much inspired from the channel frequencies over the network. In such a network some kind of orthogonal distortion occurs over the channel called Inter Carrier Interference.

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Computational analysis to predict role of human microRNAs in Ebola virusgenome

Abstract The Ebola virus is one of the most dangerous viruses in Filoviridae family. It causes fatal hemorrhagic fever in both non-human and human primates. The fatality rate is up to ninety percent. There is no effective treatment against EBOV infection so far. By using host microRNAs, we have explored for potential anti-viral therapeutics against EBOV infection, which may down-regulate viral gene expression in order to suppress viral replication. We have identified eight human miRNAs from eight potential hairpin sequences of EBOV genome. Our study provided an interesting hypothesis that those miRNAs are hsa-miR-3915, hsa-miR-6750-5p, hsa-miR-4452, hsa-miR-4796-5p, hsa-miR-671-3p, hsa-miR-5096, hsa-miR-302c-3p and hsa-miR-2054. We suggested that these hairpin sequences could be use as anti-viral therapeutics to quell the replication of EBOV infection in human.

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Performance evaluation of different bedding media in aquaponic system for growth and production of okra and tilapia

Abstract Aquaponics is the marriage of aquaculture and hydroponic technologies. Present research was accomplished to evaluate the relative performance of only gravels (T1), only coconut husk (T2) and mixture of gravels and coconut husk (1:1 in volume) (T3) as media in aquaponic system to grow okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Each treatment had three replications of similar bedding media. Nine food grade plastic containers filled with media and a 180 liter plastic water tank were used to construct the aquaponic system for growing okra and tilapia, respectively. In each bedding container, 4 okra seeds were sown and tilapia with initial length of 13.65 ± 1.88 cm and weight of 46.04 ± 20.93 g were stocked at the rate of 144 fish/m3 in the fish tank. Tilapia were fed twice a day at the rate of 3% for premier month, 2% for next month and 1.5% of body weight for the remaining time. Fish and plants were sampled biweekly during the whole study period. Data analysis revealed that the treatment T3 performed best followed by T1 and T2, respectively in terms of okra plant growth performances with respect to duration of plant growth in different growth stages, plant height, leaf number per plant, leaf area and branch number per plant. Okra production was shown significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the treatment T3 (9.08 ± 1.25 kg/m2/157 days) pursued by T1 (7.5 ± 1.83 kg/m2/157 days) and T2 (3.83 ± 2.33 kg/m2/157 days), respectively. At the termination of the study, the length gain and weight gain of tilapia were 6.64 ± 0.1 cm and 104.76 ± 20.78 g, respectively. Total tilapia yield was recorded 138.80 tons/ha/157 days with 92.3% survival and FCR of 1.96. The water quality parameters and the nutrient concentrations in influent and effluent water remained within suitable ranges for tilapia production as well as the growth of okra. Therefore, the mixture of gravels and coconut husk media showed incentive performance in plant growth and production of okra compared to the individual media and at the same time the tilapia production was also satisfactory.

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A Review on Health Insurance Claim Fraud Detection

Abstract— The anomaly or outlier detection is one of the applications of data mining. The major use of anomaly or outlier detection is fraud detection. Health care fraud leads to substantial losses of money each year in many countries. Effective fraud detection is important for reducing the cost of Health care system. This paper reviews the various approaches used for detecting the fraudulent activities in Health insurance claim data. The approaches reviewed in this paper are Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models and Non Negative Matrix Factorization. The data mining goals achieved and functions performed in these approaches have given in this paper.

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Engineering Journal September 2021

Effect of Processing Method of Kidney Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) on Carcass Quality, Organ Weight and Organoleptic Properties of Broiler A...