Composition Determination of Corrosion Products from Downhole Tubular of a Sour Gas Well Using new XRD and WDXRF Procedures and Configurations
Abstract—Corrosion study and control of downhole tubing and casing are critical for the economical and safe operation of oil and gas wells. Chemical composition investigation of corrosion products plays a key role in the identification of the corrosion mechanism and the determination of its root cause. In this study, the analytical techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry were used to determine the chemical composition of corrosion products formed on the pulled-out-of-hole (POOH) flow coupling and full joints of a sour gas well in Saudi Arabia. The samples were in the form of metal cuts and could not be prepared with the routine method for XRD and WDXRF analysis. These unconventional samples were handled using an adapted XRD configuration: X-ray point focus rather than line focus and an open eulerian cradle. With the new setup, XRD phase identification and quantification were successfully performed. It was found that the outer diameter surface of the pulled flow coupling and full joints consisted mainly of iron oxides whereas the inner diameter surface consisted mainly of iron sulfides. The XRD findings were further confirmed by WDXRF analysis. The findings suggested that the corrosion products were formed under different conditions.
Abstract— The placement of wind turbines is a key technology for wind farm configuration, but the automatic placement of turbines is always still a difficult problem. The objective of every wind farm designer is producing as maximum as possible of energy, with minimal cost of installation The improved wind and turbine models are formulated into an optimal control framework in terms of minimizing the cost per unit energy of the wind farm. In this study, a code Wind Farm Optimization using a Genetic Algorithm (WFOAG) is developed for optimizing the placement of wind turbines in wind farm to minimize the cost per unit power produced from the wind farm. A genetic algorithm is employed for the optimization. WFOAG is validated using the results from previous studies.
Abstract—.The biometric system plays an important role in everyone life. To identify one identity, the finger is one of many forms of the biometrics are generally used. The fingerprint is the verified function to identify a match between two person’s fingerprints. Here a simple and effective system for biometric fingerprint based voter identity system has been proposed that is based on image enhancement and correct minutiae extraction. Automatic and reliable extraction of minutiae from fingerprint images is a critical step in fingerprint matching. In this research a fast fingerprint enhancement and minutiae extraction algorithm have been presented which improve the clarity of the ridge and valley structures of the input fingerprint images based on the frequency and orientation of the local ridges and thereby extracting correct minutiae.
Abstract— This paper deals with the case of a high speed mobile receiver operating in an orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system. The OFDM communication is very much inspired from the channel frequencies over the network. In such network some kind of orthogonal distortion occurs over the channel called Inter carrier Interference. Here we will improve the ICI using Kalman Filtering improved by using repetitive slot and correlated channel tap.
The proposed work of this paper is when data travel over some channel it suffers from the problem of interference. The interference results the high signal to noise ratio as well as high bit error rate. The proposed system will improved the signal by removing the different kind of impurities over the signal. These impurities include the ICI, PAPR and the noise over the signal. The signal will be more effective than standard OFDM. So we needn't many pilot symbols in practice, still can ensure the algorithm performance and reduce the time- delay and complexity of this algorithm.