Abstract— Optimizing energy consumption is the main concern for designing and planning the operation of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Clustering technique is one of the methods utilized to extend lifetime of the network and balancing energy consumption among sensor nodes of the network. In this paper, we propose the recently developed, heuristic optimization algorithms like Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Tabu Search Algorithm(TSA) as well as the traditional Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithms. A comparison is made with the well known cluster-based protocol approach developed for WSNs known as harmony search algorithm which is music based Meta heuristic optimization method. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol using hybrid can reduce energy consumption and improve the network lifetime.
Abstract— The objective of this project was to use seismic refraction techniques to delineate the subsurface layers as a supplement to routine geotechnical investigations. Seismic velocities of the subsurface material were determined and used to find the possible composition of the subsurface materials and also to delineate the subsurface layers and their thicknesses. The seismic data was obtained using Geometric SmartSeis ST® 12-channel signal enhancement seismograph and Mark Product Limited® 48-Hz geophones. The survey was conducted along four traverse lines each with a length of 135m. It was determined from the seismic survey that the project site maybe underlain by dry loose sand, saturated sand and/or clay material. Information from two exploratory boreholes drilled to a maximum depth of 10.45m at the study area was consistent with the seismic refraction results obtained. The seismic results also showed there could be a fault at the project area along Traverse Line 1 and Traverse Line 2.
Abstract— The radical copolymerization of (p-2-ethoxycarbonyl)cyclopropyl styrene with glycidyl methacrylate has been investigated. The new cyclopropane- and epoxy-containing photosensitive copolymers have been prepared. The constant values of relative activity of the monomers have been determined and the parameters Q-e on Alfrey and Price have been calculated. The copolymerization constants of this compound (r1) with glycidyl methacrylate (r2) calculated on Feynman-Ross method are: r1 = 1.15, r2 = 0.42, respectively; values of parameters Q and e: Q1 = 1.85, e1 = -0.75, respectively. The composition and structure have been established and the photochemical investigations of the synthesized copolymer have been carried out. It has been established that structuring proceeds due to opening of cyclopropane ring, epoxide and carbonyl groups.
Abstract— Continuously increasing food prices of basic kitchen items, fruits and vegetables the poor and fixed income groups are suffering from the decreasing real incomes and purchasing power. The marginal increase in the income of the poor people to enable them to gain access to food and improve their nutrition is the need of the present time. The kitchen garden falls under bio-intensive and participatory innovation which can provide year round availability, access and consumption of adequate amount and varieties which supply not only the calorific demands but also the micronutrients by the resource poor. One of the easiest ways of ensuring access to a healthy diet that contains adequate macro- and micronutrients is to produce many different kinds of foods in the home garden. This is especially important in rural areas where people have limited income-earning opportunities and poor access to markets. Kitchen gardening contributes to household food security by providing direct access to food that can be harvested, prepared and fed to family members, often on a daily basis. Kitchen gardens can be grown in the empty space available at the backyard of the house or a group of women can come together, identify a common place or land and grow desired vegetables, fruits, cereals etc that can benefit the women and community as a whole. This leads to give the idea of automated kitchen gardening system. The system is designed to sense soil moisture and amount of light falling on the plants. When the moisture content in the soil is too low, the system will give command to start a pump and water the soil. Apart from this the Arduino and ESP8266 it will transmit information on moisture level and ambient light. You can monitor all the data from your smart phone by using Virtuino app. Then a twit can be send to your account automatically if the moisture falls below a given threshold value. It provides full control and monitoring of variables such as temperature, pest management and control works and more.
50 m-range distance and position measurement method by using two searchlights for autonomous flight device
Abstract— In the present study, 50 m-range distance and position measurement method for autonomous flight device such as four-rotor drone by using two searchlights was proposed, and the precise distance/position measurement performance was evaluated in an outdoor situation. To realize over 10 m long-distance flight of the drone under unstable GPS signal situations such as under the bridge or inside tunnels for periodic inspections, the correct self-position measurement is important for the stable control. This study is to propose a simple method of over 50 m range autonomous four-rotor helicopter movement control using high power 300W two searchlights as InfraRed sources on the ground and the direction of the searchlights sets to the investigation target position such as bridge side. High power light sources of the two searchlights are enabled to measure the correct drone position via an attached drone's camera with an InfraRed filter, and it realizes 1.5 m standard deviation position estimation error when 50 m distance in an outdoor daylight situation. In addition, the limitation of the position detectable condition also measured and analyzed in other experiments. Our proposed method would be effective in the situation that there is no skilled the drone control operator and the flight by visual confirmation of man are hard conditions, and useful to develop the position measurement system with low cost.