Sunday 22 September 2019

Engineering Journal: August 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-8, August 2019 with AD Publications

Immobilization of Biotechnologically Important Candida rugosa Lipase onto Commercial Matrices

AbstractThe continual search for alternative environmentally cleaner technologies in industrial processes has led to an increase in the use of enzymatic processes globally. However, due to their physical characteristics they require immobilization in order to remain effective. The objective of this study was to investigate the immobilization of the biotechnologically important and commercially available Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) by physical interfacial adsorption onto a number of matrices to act as biocatalysts. Five different types of support were tested: i) macroporous silica (synthetic inorganic), ii) polyhydroxybutyrate (natural organic), iii) polypropylene (synthetic organic), iv) polymethacrylate (synthetic organic), and v) polystyrene-divinylbenzene (synthetic organic). Results generated during this study showed that from the group of materials tested, polystyrene-divinylbenzene gave the best results with the highest amount of immobilized protein (8.10 ± 0.31 mg/g) and a good immobilization yield (90.35% ± 1.53%). The efficiency of protein immobilization was found to be highest when carried out at pH4.5, which is close to the isoelectric point of the enzyme.

KeywordsBiocatalysts, Candida rugosa, immobilized protein, lipase, physical adsorption, support.

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Kinetic Characteristics for Reaction between Trichloroisocyanuric (TCCA) Acid with 2-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS)

Abstract The research experimental results determiningrateconstant of the reaction between TCCA and CS according to Arrhenius equation was studied. Basing the set of graphs showing the relationship between (ln(k) - (1/T)) and (ln (k/T) - (1/T)), the activation energy (Ea) according to the Arrhenius equation and activation enthalpy variation (∆H#), activationentropy variation (∆S#), free activation energy Gibss (∆G#) according to the Eyring equation are determined. The products of TCCA reaction and CS at pH = 9 are2-chloro benzaldehyde oxirane-2,2-dicarbonitrile, 3-(2-chlorophenyl) so predicting the reaction mechanism consists of two reactions taking place in parallel, a hydrolysisand oxidation reactions.

Keywords Trichloroisocyanuric acid, 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile, Kinetic characteristics.

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Design Parameters and Conceptual Analysis on Gas Resource and Infrastructure Management: Trans-Nigeria Gas Pipeline Projects in Nigeria

Abstract Gas pipeline network and indeed gas infrastructures in the industry are liken to arteries and veins of the body. Blood circulation in the body systems travels through arteries and veins while gas resource travel through network of pipes for industrial and domestic purposes. Nigerian dependency on oil in the last 50years, has been characterised with reserves depletion and infrastructural decays. Therefore, the urgent intervention for Gas Domestication Project cannot be over emphasised. There are endless investment opportunities that abound in the natural gas sector of the Nigerian petroleum industry. At present, the annual gas production in Nigeria is about 2000 BSFC which is remarkable for an oil dominated economy (Figures 1, 2 and 3). Therefore, the initiatives for sustainable gas domestication projects such as the Calabar -Umuahia – Ajaokuta (CUA) and the Ajaokuta – Abuja – Kano (AAK) are laudable in terms of boosting economic resources for future investments. The rapid quests for industrial development of the country necessitate the conceptualization of the Trans Nigerian Gas Pipeline Projects. The project was divided into two segments the Calabar – Umuahia – Ajaokuta (CUA) trunk and the Ajaokuta - Abuja - Kaduna –Kano (AAK) trunk line respectively. The CUA is a 681km, 56” underground single-phase pipeline while the AAK is a 585km, 56” underground single-phase pipeline respectively. The spur lines were design to withstand maximum of 24”and minimum of 22”respectively. The entire project cycle from conceptualization, design and completion were undertaken within two years with about eighty-five (85%) per cent Nigerian Content. The Nigerian engineers and scientists in collaboration with the consultants, deliver the project on schedule (Table 1). The implementation strategy was predicated on the utilization of Critical Path Method (CPM) and Site Man-hour and Cost Control (SMAC) approach for project scheduling, monitoring and evaluation as well as cost control activities all through the duration,(Equations 1-6). Risk determination and safety checks were carried out at each stage for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Front End Engineering Design (FEED), Detailed Engineering Design (DEED), Hazop and Hazid Safety processes, Helicopter Overfly and Right of way Mapping, Cost and Constructability Review and Invitation To Bid (ITB) documentation etc were scheduled and completed. Timely completion of the engineering design and documentation of the project was fundamental to the procurement and construction of the pipeline network. Procurement and construction work schedule are expected to increase industrial development of the country. Efficient gas utilization through gas to power projects, industrial parks along the gas pipeline routes is also affected. This study is expedient in the actual analysis and review of the initial engineering design and safety codes with a view to ensuring compliance with industry standards. The study is also significant as reference material for the actualization of the vision of designing and constructing a world class Trans-Nigerian gas pipeline projects. It will also serve asa reference material for administrators and decision makers on effective deployment and management of resources on gas pipeline projects in Nigeria.

Keywords— Conceptual Analysis, Critical Path Method, Site Man Hour and Cost Control, Infrastructure Management, Right-of-Way, Design Parameters, Environmental Impact Analysis.

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Facile fabrication of PDMS microspheres with and without fluorescent dye doping

AbstractPoly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) microspheres are increasingly gaining importance for a wide range of applications due to their flexibility and inertness. In this paper, we have fabricated PDMS microspheres using facile emulsion formation in water by stirring with and without additional ultrasonic excitation. It was found that the particle size distribution, which can be attributed to the formation rate of cross-linked PDMS networks in the hydrophobic microspheres, depends on the temperature of the aqueous medium. Swelling of the microspheres in acetone was suggested by permeabilization as evidenced by diffusion and encapsulation of fluorescent dyes within the PDMS. Using scanning electron microscopy, the surface morphology of the spheres was confirmed to have no surface roughness or irregularity. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that the encapsulated dyes randomly and thus uniformly distributed themselves within the cross-linked PDMS networks and retained the fluorescent properties and characteristic emission color, implying their potential for drug carrier.

Keywordspoly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), microspheres, swelling, encapsulation, fluorescent dyes.

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Engineering Journal: July 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-7, July 2019 with AD Publications

Smart and Economical Scheme for Electrical Power Generation

Abstract This article advises a simple and innovative scheme for generating electricity from human activities. A simple and robust approach is proposed for converting human walking into valuable electricity source. The proposed scheme could be sufficient for powering small portable devices and providing independent power supply. Matlab and Simulink dynamic platform are used for stimulating the systems under concern. The prototype results validate the simulation results. The proposed scheme proofed to be valuable, economical and reliable power supply.

Keywords— Pressure, Energy converter, Electricity, Boost converter, Portable.

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Manual Correction of Myopia, Hypermetropia, Astigmatism, Presbyopia & Keratoconus.

Abstract— A new method has been designed to correct myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism and presbyopia of very high power. If 1mm of cornea is tucked, then it corrects 3.174 D & If 1mm of horizontal diameter of cornea is reduced, then it corrects +4.1D. This procedure is reliable, safe, cheapest and simplest. Because of the use of simple procedure to split the cornea, adjustable nonabsorbable sutures, correction of very high myopia and hypermetropia along with astigmatism and presbyopia, the procedure is expected to be accepted.

Keywords— Arc of cornea, chord, angle of arc, myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, formula.

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Synthesis and Properties of Asymmetric Polyamidosulfoimides on the Basis of Dichloroanhydrides of Saccharin-5-Carboxylic Acids and Aliphatic Diamines

Abstract By polycondensation of dichloroanhydride of saccharin-5-carboxylic acids with aliphatic diamines in dimethylacetamide at room temperature the asymmetric polyamidosulfoimide has been synthesized. The influence of nature of solvent, concentration of the initial reagents and reaction temperature on value of characteristic viscosity and also on solubility, thermal stability and deformation-strength properties of the synthesized polyamidosulfoimides has been investigated. It has been elucidated that a growth of a quantity of methylene groups in the polymer leads to the improvement of solubility of the polymers in dimethylformamide and dimethylacetamide, but at the same time leads to the relative deterioration of thermal stability.

Keywords aliphatic diamines, dichloroanhydride of saccharin-carboxylic acids, polyamidosulfoimide, saccharin-5-carboxylic acid.

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Approximate 3-D model for analysis of laminated plates with arbitrary lay-ups, loading and boundary conditions

AbstractAvailable exact solution techniques of elasto-static problems entail limitations on the choice of lay-ups, loading and boundary conditions and impose restrictions on strain and stress fields as well, to overcome algebraic difficulties inherent to modeling of laminated and sandwich composites. Therefore in fact they become unsuitable for testing accuracy of modern laminated plate theories aiming to very accurately describing 3-D stress fields in real conditions of use of multilayered composites, nowadays widespread in engineering applications. To overcome the assumption of too restrictive hypotheses, an approximate 3-D solution technique is proposed and assessed that is able to automatically solve problems which due to the lay-ups, loading and boundary conditions assumed would not be solved with the exact techniques available. A quite general, accurate structural model is developed that comes to constitute a generalization of available physically-based zig-zag theories, being free from through-thickness assumptions and because zig-zag functions are not explicitly contained, the layerwise contributions being represented by the redefinition of coefficients of the through-thickness series expansion. It is based solely on the prescriptions of the theory of elasticity, i.e., displacement and stress compatibility at interfaces, fulfillment of local equilibrium equations at points across the thickness and of stress boundary constraints. A truncated expansion series of trial functions and unknown amplitudes is used to represent variables, whose coefficients are determined in exact form using a symbolic calculus tool that enforces all elasticity constraints and in conjunction with Rayleigh-Ritz and Lagrange multipliers methods.

KeywordsComposite and sandwich plates, zig-zag theories, interlaminar transverse shear/normal stress continuity, localized and distributed loadings, FEA 3-D, elastostatic solutions.

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Saturday 21 September 2019

Engineering Journal: June 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-6, June 2019 with AD Publications

A Quasi Experimental Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Knowledge of Primary School Teachers Regarding Selected Emotional and Behavioural Disorders of Children in Selected School of Karauli District Rajasthan

Abstract The finding of the present study were analyzed and discussed with finding of similar studies. This helped the investigator to prove that the findings were true and the planned teaching programme was effective in improving knowledge of Primary School Teachers. It included statement, objective, assumption, hypothesis and tool used for the study and findings.

The study made use of a quasi- experimental approach with one group pre-test and post-test design. The population of the study consisted of Primary School Teachers at selected school of Alwar. Convenient sampling technique was utilized to select 158 Primary School Teachers based on certain pre-determined criteria.

Keywords— Emotional behavior disorder, behavioral disorder, karauli district study, children early age growth, children behavior, health care of children.

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Free-Radical Nonbranched-Chain Hydrogen Oxidation

Abstract New reaction scheme is suggested for the initiated nonbranched-chain addition of hydrogen atoms to the multiple bond of the molecular oxygen. The scheme includes the addition reaction of the hydroperoxyl free radical to the oxygen molecule to form the hydrotetraoxyl free radical which is relatively low-reactive and inhibits the chain process by shortening of the kinetic chain length. This reaction competes with chain propagation reactions through a hydrogen atom. Based on the proposed scheme rate equations (containing one to three parameters to be determined directly) are deduced using quasi-steady-state treatment. The kinetic description with use the obtained rate equations is applied to the γ-induced nonbranched-chain process of the free-radical oxidation of hydrogen dissolved in water containing different amounts of oxygen at 296 K. The ratio of rate constants of competing reactions and the rate constant of the addition reaction to the molecular oxygen are defined. In this process the oxygen with the increase of its concentration begins to act as an oxidation autoinhibitor (or an antioxidant), and the rate of hydrogen peroxide formation as a function of the dissolved oxygen concentration has a maximum. From the energetic standpoint possible nonchain pathways of the free-radical oxidation of hydrogen and the routes of ozone decay via the reaction with the hydroxyl free radical (including the addition yielding the hydrotetraoxyl free radical) in the Earth’s upper atmosphere were considered.

Keywords competition, hydrogen, low-reactive hydrotetraoxyl free radical, thermochemical data, energy.

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Zig-zag theories differently accounting for layerwise effects of multilayered composites

AbstractThis paper essays the effects of the choice of through-thickness representation of variables and of zig-zag functions within a general theory by the authors from which the theories considered are particularized. Characteristic feature, coefficients are calculated using symbolic calculus, so to enable an arbitrary choice of the representation. Such choice and that of zig-zag functions is shown to be always immaterial whenever coefficients are recalculated across the thickness by enforcing the fulfillment of elasticity theory constraints. Assigning a specific role to each coefficient is shown immaterial. Moreover, the order of representation of displacements can be freely exchanged with one another and, most important, zig-zag functions can be omitted if part of coefficients are calculated enforcing the interfacial stress field compatibility. Vice versa, accuracy of theories that only partially satisfy constraints, is shown to be strongly dependent upon the assumptions made. Applications to laminated and soft-core sandwich plates and beams having different length-to-thickness ratios, different material properties and thickness of constituent layers, various boundary conditions and distributed or localized loading are presented. Solutions are found in analytic form assuming the same trial functions and expansion order for all theories. Numerical results show which simplifications are yet accurate and therefore admissible.

KeywordsComposite and sandwich plates, zig-zag theories, interlaminar transverse shear/normal stress continuity, localized and distributed loadings, FEA 3-D elastostatic solutions.

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Engineering Journal: May 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-5, May 2019 with AD Publications

Characterization of Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Animal & Plant Wastes

Abstract— The negative impact of the increased use of fossil fuels for energy generation and consumption has reached a global dimension and can no longer be over looked. All efforts are now being geared towards an alternative source of energy, renewable in nature and more environmental friendly in use. This study investigates the production of biogas – a renewable energy from the anaerobic digestion of three different types of biodegradable wastes (Cassava peelings and poultry droppings, Beans waste and poultry droppings, Cassava peelings and beans wastes) as an alternative to fossil fuels for energy consumption. The study was carried out using a 0.1m3 capacity biogas digester constructed to investigate the anaerobic digestion in generating biogas. The experiment was batch operated and daily gas yield from the plant was monitored for 24 days. During this period, many operation factors were monitored to determine the effect each of them has on the biogas generation. These factors monitored are temperature changes, Pressure changes, pH changes, changes in alkality, Cassava peelings and poultry dropping generated the highest maximum biogas of 0.035m2/kg/day at a PH value of 7.35 on the 19th day. This was followed by poultry droppings and beans mixture. Cassava peelings and beans waste had the least volume of biogas. This treatise assets that biogas is not only a renewable energy source but has a dual function of waste management in the course of its production.

Keywords Biogas, Renewable energy, Anaerobic Digestion, Waste, Fossil.

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FMEA Methodology Capabilities in Environmental Risk Management

Abstract The paper asserts convincingly the appropriateness of the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) methodology for risk identification and minimization activities based on the analysis of potential process inconsistencies disclosed through a quantitative analysis of cause-and-effect discrepancies. Advanced in the paper is also an in-depth analysis of FMEA methodology applicability for the development of new projects and technologies, for production process and product quality planning analyses and takes a closer look of FMEA methodology capabilities in environmental risk management.

Keywords FMEA, methodology, analysis, process, environmental risk.

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Motion of A Rocket in Three-Dimension with Constant Thrust Over A Spherical Rotating Earth Holding Constant Heading and Constant Path Inclination

Abstract In this paper we have determined the velocity and altitude of a spacecraft and then equation of its trajectory with constant thrust, constant heading and constant path-inclination by regulating the bank angle and angle of attack.

Keywords Path inclination, constant, relative, rotating, spherical, Bessel's equation, angular velocity, thrust, rocket.

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Study of association between pre-test knowledge and selected demographic variables of Primary School Teachers regarding selected emotional and behavioural disorders of children.

Abstract The early years of a child’s life are very important for his or her health and development. Healthy development means that children of all abilities, including those with special health care needs, are able to grow up where their social, emotional and educational needs are met. Having a safe and loving home and spending time with family―playing, singing, reading, and talking―are very important. Proper nutrition, exercise, and sleep also can make a big difference.

Children's emotional and behavioural disorders are disorders that affect not only children’s behaviour, emotions, moods, or thoughts, but can also affect the entire family as well. The established pattern of emotional or behavioral responses might adversely affect educational or developmental performance including intrapersonal, academic, vocational or social skills.

Keywords— children early age growth, children behavior, health care of children.

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Engineering Journal: April 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-4, April 2019 with AD Publications

A Review: Use of Geo-grid in Construction of Flyover

Abstract A pavement structure consists of numerous layers out of which sub-grade plays a vital role for the very first purpose of distributing and transmitting traffic loads coming over it to the strata underneath. What’s more if layer of sub-grade in pavement comprises of extensive soil i.e. soil containing montmorilonite mineral, at that point because of changes in water content and consequent swelling and shrinkage that may result into numerous of failure resulting into rutting, bumps, reduction in bearing capacity of pavement. Changing the available soil probably won’t be a reasonable alternative, therefore to defeat all these hurduls, use of geo-synthetics is found to be the best solution resulting into better performance by reduction in cost and reduction in vertical deformation of pavement structures over sub grades of shifted strengths. Anyway the choice of stabilizer relies on the sort of sub-grade’s soil, sort of soil-improvement wanted, accessibility to stabilizer, ecological conditions, quality needed and toughness of balanced-out layer, various stabilizing procedures, and the most critical is money related factor. Geo-synthetics are generally utilized for some activities in particulars as filtration, partition, safety, drainage, fixing and so on. Especially for the last case, geo-synthetics with extra highlights have been created permitting a changeless checking of the deformations. Future geo-synthesis will be outfitted with such extra capabilities empowering a non-ruinous and changeless observing of structures worked with geo-synthetics. At any rate, geo-grid fortified construction represents momentous favorable circumstances regarding natural and monetary perspectives against the structures. It is likewise outstanding from field tests and wide-extend testing that geo-synthetic fortified contractions have a lot higher bearing strength than anticipated and that the distortions are too low than expectation. This paper went through the craft by different analysts on the strategies of adjustment of soil & utilization of geo-manufactured materials in quality improving.

Keywords Geo-grids, Geo-synthetics reinforcement, Sub-grade, Stabilization and improving strength of soil.

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At-Speed test Prominence

Abstract With the remarkable scaling down of technology, test engineers are encountered with new challenges. With the reduction technology moving down to Deep Submicron level, the digital designs are moving closer to the probability of defects related to time. The traditional Stuck-at tests and IDDQ tests can no more detect few distinctive faults which may be occurring due to issues related to timing of the signal. The defect spectrum is thus broadened by the inclusion of other types of faults such as high impedance shorts, in-line resistance, and cross-talk between signals. This paper proposes the use of At-Speed test which is better suited to detect the new types of failures that occur in a digital circuit due to its complex design. The use of At-speed test ensures the timing reliability of the chip after manufacturing thereby reducing DPM (Defect per million) rate. At-speed tests when added with the traditional stuck-at tests, guarantees maximum fault coverage and reduced DPM rates (@30 to 70%). Though At-speed testing is not a new concept and few ASIC vendors have been using this, they have been using functional test patterns to create them which are a very tedious and time consuming routine. Diagnosing the failure source also becomes difficult with the failure of functional patterns. This paper discusses about the fault models provided by industries leading ATPG tools that targets the At-speed failure.

Keywords At-Speed test, functional test patterns, fault coverage, Stuck-At-Test, IDDQ Tests.

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A Computer-Aided Justice Management System: A prototype for Universities in Uganda

Abstract Justice Management in any organisation is recipe for proper management and organisational prosperity. As error is to human, disputes are inevitable but should be resolved amicably. With a focus on higher institutions of learning justice administration and management is handy in managing competition and so profit maximization especially in the current privatization of higher education. The study aimed at designing a prototype for universities which ultimately helps local citizens to interpret law. Six universities were purposively selected and a cross sectional and design science research methodology employed. The study found that if improved the proposed justice management system would significantly reduce the prevailing challenges of case backlog, losses and postponed hearing records, timely and responsiveness of summons among others. However, in future the small messaging system (SMS) enabled systems could also be considered together with translator into major local languages.

Keywords Justice, Dispute, Rights, Electronic.

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Cost Effective Energy Monitoring System

Abstract Remote energy meter monitoring is an advanced energy meter formulated by our own which will overcome the problems faced in conventional metering system such as human interference which leads to incorrect billing. In this energy meter advanced technologies such as ARM microcontroller, Raspberry Pi, ADC, Seven segment display (SSD), Cloud (Thing Speak) have been used. This is the new device which is using CY8C4247AZI-M485 ARM Microcontroller and will display voltage, current, and power on SSD and send data on IoT cloud Platform through Raspberry Pi. It can be implemented for residential as well as for industrial purpose. The developed system replaces traditional meter reading methods and enables remote access of existing energy meter by the energy provider. Also it can monitor the meter readings regularly without the person visiting each house. The system collects and manages energy consumption data and provides billing information for the user. A user can easily monitor, manage, and control energy consumption and achieve energy cost saving using the proposed scheme.

Keywords ARM Microcontroller, Automatic Meter Reading System, Electronic Metering, IoT Cloud, Raspberry Pi 3b Model, Smart Meter.

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Engineering Journal September 2021

Effect of Processing Method of Kidney Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) on Carcass Quality, Organ Weight and Organoleptic Properties of Broiler A...