Saturday, 29 February 2020

Engineering Journal: February 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-2, February 2020 with AD Publications

Study of Crystal Structure Profile Fitting of CuO for different Intensities of Gamma Radiation using Rietveld Refinement Method

Abstract The study of crystal structure profile fitting described by Hugo Rietveld named Rietveld Refinement became popular for profile fitting and microstructural analysis. The Rietveld method refines user-selected parameters to minimize the difference between an experimental parameter (observed data) and a model based on the hypothesized crystal structure and instrumental parameters (calculated data). In this paper, profile fitting of CuO has been discussed for different intensities of XRD data. Here Goodness of fitting is kept 1-2. For different dose the goodness of fitting changes.

Keywords— CuO, Powder diffraction, gamma radiation.

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Characterization of fine precipitates evolution in post ageing treatment after friction stir processed 7075Al Alloy

AbstractThe effect of post ageing treatment (140oC for 2h) on the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of FSPed 7075 Al alloy has been studied by Optical microscopy (OM), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and mechanical properties. Friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid-state surface modification technique to apply for cast aluminium alloys. FSP has a similar metal working principle like FSW (friction stir welding). The alloy has strong age-hardening response with scandium (Sc) inoculated Al-Zn-Mg alloy, on the other hand novelty of FSP only few studies have been carried out to the effect of post ageing treatment on the microstructure, size, morphology and fine dispersion of coherent Al3Sc(L12) type precipitates or ή-phases and its mechanical properties of friction stir processed 7075 Al alloy. The FSPed enhances grain boundary (GB) formation and increases suitable sites for the precipitation of nucleation in post aged 7075 Al alloy. Themechanical properties have been evaluated such as proof strength (σ0. 2) of 122. 9 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (σu) of 256. 4 MPa, ductility (δ) of 8. 6%, Vicker’s hardness in stir zone of 101 HV, strain hardening exponent (n) of 1. 82, and heat input during FSPed of 2. 15 kJ/mm, respectively.

KeywordsAl3Sc and ή precipitates, FSP, mechanical properties, post aged 7075 Al alloy, TEM.

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Naphtol Oligomers and their Electroconductive Compositions

Abstract By oxidative polycondensation reaction of 1- and 2-naphthols, the polyfunctional polyconjugated soluble and meltable oligomers showing the thermostable, semiconductive and paramagnetic properties, as well as high reactivity in the reactions characteristic for aromatic hydroxyl groups have been obtained.

They have been used as active fillers in preparation of electroconductive compositions on the basis of thermoplasts and rubbers. The antistatic polymer-oligomer compositions of LDPE, PP and PS with naphthol oligomers have been obtained. It has been shown that in partial substitution of carbon black by naphthol oligomers in the composition of vulcanizate from BR, the obtained rubbers exhibit high heat-physical, physical-mechanical and electrical properties.

Keywords electroactive polymers, electroconductive compositions, naphtol, oligonaphtol, oxidation, polycondensation.

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Alzheimer’s Detection By Using Neural Networks

Abstract It is very important to get the diagnosis tools in early stage of Alzheimer as it will increase patient’s chances of recovering and it enables the people attending the patient to take better care of him/her. Alzheimer’s disease (shortly AD) is an acute disease with many number of the human deaths mostly people over 60 years. There are number of techniques like blood test, psychological analysis and neuroimaging, are available for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. Here we present details of work done in detection and classification of the Alzheimer’s disease using neuroimaging techniques. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans of brains are used for detection and classification purpose. First stage is to preprocess the MRI images and then we segment it. Next we do feature extraction from segmented image. These features are stored for the last stage which is classification and detection. Classification and detection is done using artificial neural network (ANN) which is very reliable and accurate technique. Neural network is trained using number of sample data and extracted feature. This leads to more accurate results which will aid in early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords Alzheimer’s disease, artificial neural network, classification, magnetic resonance imaging, neuroimaging, positron emission tomography.

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ZnO Modified Bismuth Silicate Glasses Structural and Physical Properties

Abstract Zinc bismuth silicate glasses with compositions were prepared using standard melt-quench techniques and zinc solubility limits were estimated using X-ray diffraction techniques in the bismuth silicate glass scheme. Density was measured using the principle of Archimedes; the molar volume and density decreased with a rise in ZnO in the samples. The temperature of the glass transition ( ) was determined using differential calorimetry scanning (DSC) and is expected to raise with a rise in ZnO content. Raman and FTIR spectra were registered at room temperature and Raman and FTIR analysis demonstrates that in all glass compositions there are asymmetric and symmetric extended vibrations of Si-O bonds in tetrahedral units and with reduction in Bi2O3, the input of symmetric vibrations starts to dominate resulting in enhanced compactness of the glass composition.

Keywords— ZnO, Bismath silicate, DSC,Raman spectra, Infrared spectrum.

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Optimization of IBOM Power Plant (PG9171) using Fault Prediction on Gas Path Analysis

Abstract Almost from the inception of the gas turbine engine (GT), users and engine manufacturers have sought an effective technique to determine the health of the gas-path components (fan, compressors, combustor, turbines) based on available gas-path measurements. The potential of such tools to save money by anticipating the need for overhaul and providing help in work scope definition is substantial, provided they produce reliable results. It furthermore therefore became desirable to monitor the engine performance and diagnose the fault even before the damage is done since the fault can cause permanent damage to the components. Preventive maintenance proves to be a better way considering the longer run. This project thus work describes how modern gas-path analysis can be used as a tool for gas turbine diagnosis. Gas path analysis is studied with the aid of fault predictions obtained from using fuzzy logic was found to be a more suitable method for gas turbine diagnosis because the set of fuzzy rules are described using common language. MATLAB Simulink environment is also used to predict the degree of fault in the gas turbine through its Gas path analysis. The linguistic variables used as inputs are temperature, pressure and speed while the linguistic variable used as output is failure. The universe of discourse for temperature is between [0, 55], pressure is [0, 1000], shaft speed is [0, 5000] and failure which is the fault is [0, 1]. A type 1 fuzzy logic model and the center of gravity method are used as the defuzzification module. From the results it is seen that the value for the highest possible fault is 0.909 and the lowest is 0.217 at 6.3 and 52.7 OC respectively. This research shows that the fault prediction probability increases at higher operating conditions of the gas turbine.

Keywords Gas Turbine, Fault Prediction, Gas Path Analysis, MATLAB Simulink, Fuzzy Logic.

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A Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge and Practice regarding Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses among Staff Nurses working in Paediatric Wards of Selected Hospitals in Patna, Bihar

Abstract

Introduction: Children are our future and our most precious resources. Today’s children are the citizens of tomorrow’s world. The IMNCI case management component is mainly focused on the classification of the five most common causes of infant mortality (diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria, measles and malnutrition), identification of treatment, accurate treatment or timely referral, counseling of the mother and giving follow-up care. IMNCI integrated treatment guidelines are devised to assist the health workers to assess the sick child by observing easily recognizable signs. Working through a color-coded system, the health worker classifies the sickness and takes the necessary steps such as urgent referral for medical treatment at a health Centre, medical treatment on the spot or advice for home management.

Method & Material: An evaluative research approach and quasi-experimental research design was adopted. 150 nurses working in pediatric wards of selected hospitals at Patna were selected for the study by using purposive sampling technique. By using knowledge questionnaires, and competency checklists questionnaires.

Results: The study reveals that out of 100% of nurses 3.3% of the nurses had good knowledge before Self-instructional module; majority of the nurses 60% had average knowledge; 36.6% of the nurses had poor knowledge. Whereas majority of the subjects 76.7% had good knowledge, 23.3% nurses had average knowledge after a Self-instructional module in IMNCI. In competency 51.7% had moderate on practice, 38.3% had adequate knowledge on practice, and 10% of the nurses had inadequate knowledge on practice before the Self-instructional module. Whereas majority of the nurses 83.3% had adequate knowledge on practice, 16.7% nurses had moderate knowledge on practice after the Self-instructional module on IMNCI.

Conclusion: There is a positive co-relation observed between the level of knowledge and practice regarding Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses among staff nurses. The study revealed that Self-instructional module improved the knowledge and practice regarding Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness among Staff nurses.

Keywords— Knowledge, Practice IMNCI.

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Friday, 7 February 2020

Engineering Journal: January 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-1, January 2020 with AD Publications

Insight into Agricultural Mechanization in Cameroon: Case of Farm Operators, Users of Agricultural Equipment and Machines

Abstract Cameroon has an economy strongly dominated by the agricultural sector and despite this domination as well as the fact that this sector is backed by several policy documents and statements, investments in the sector is still grossly underdeveloped. Many farm operators in the different agro ecological environment still rely to an overwhelming extend on the use animate power to achieve their agricultural production goals. This power source and the tools used have implicit limitation in terms of energy and operational output. Cameroon government persistently carry out some initiative to inverse the tendency such as the providing modern agricultural equipment and machinery to farm operators, training complex farm machinery users. However, these solutions are not part of a common though and so far have produced mixed results without a significant improvement on the field. This paper permits to appreciate the challenges faced by users of farm technology in agricultural mechanization via four main crops of significant importance to Cameroon: Maize, Cassava, Sorghum and Cocoa.

Among others, it was observed that 75% of farmers involved in cultivation of sorghum, maize, cassava have land surfaces less than 2%. These small farm sizes are a serious handicap to the effective mechanization due to sparse and scattered cultivated lands. Also, only 13% (112) of farm operators have access to credit from micro finance institutions. This low access to credit contributes to the reluctance of farm operators to invest in agricultural machinery acquisition with only 3% owing a land with a land title.

Keywords Adoption, Challenges, Farm operators, Insight, Mechanization.

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Analysis of the Plate Heat Exchanger Failure

Abstract The present article describes the effect of the pressure on the operability of the plate exchanger of the SWEEP IC 5 x 20 type as well as the results of the numerical analysis of the stresses at three different loads. The exchanger was tested at the testing pressure defined by the manufacturer (2 MPa). Maximum stresses were observed at the places of soldered joints on individual exchanger plates and the stress was highly above the carrying capacity of the solder joint. With an increasing distance from the place where the boards were connected, stress exhibited a sharp increase. The testing was also focused on the stresses on the surface area (shroud) of the exchanger at the permissible operating pressure of 1.6 MPa defined by the manufacturer. An important observation was the stress identified at the measured real operating pressure of 0.7 MPa ̶ destruction of the exchanger used by the operator.

Keywords plate heat exchangers, numerical analysis of stress.

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Immobilization of commercial lipase onto different supports: characterization and application in esterification reaction

Abstract The current preference of costumers for natural and healthy products is increasing the employment of biotechnological processes that use enzymes, and the synthesis of esters is an example of this change. However, enzymes are high-cost product, which stimulates research in finding solutions that make them more economically attractive, like immobilization. This work aimed to use different protocols for immobilizing lipase and its application in ester synthesis. The results showed that Pseudomonas fluorences lipase (AKL) was the most efficient for immobilization among other studied lipases (Pseudomonas fluorences lipase (AKL), Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PSL), Hog Pancreas lipase (PHL), Pancreas Porcinas lipase (PPL), and Mucor Javanicus lipase (MJL)), with hydrolytic activity of 3323.6 U/g. Both immobilization methods (physical adsorption and entrapment) showed promising results towards hydrolytic activity. The best immobilization by adsorption was obtained using AKL onto PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate), with 698.61 U/g of hydrolytic activity. For entrapment, AKL also presented the best result, with 247.30 U/g of hydrolytic activity. For the synthesis of ester, after a 60 h-reaction using the immobilized derivatives by physical adsorption, the esterification yield was 74.26 %. In terms of hydrolytic activity, the employed protocols were very promising and encourage the continuity of this study towards the optimization of processes using industrial lipases.

Keywords Adsorption, Entrapment, Lipase, Ester, Hydrolysis.

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Kinetics of Initiated Ethanediol Formation from Methanol–Formaldehyde Solutions

Abstract The mechanism and kinetics are developed for the initiated non branched-chain formation of ethanediol in methanol–formaldehyde solutions at formaldehyde concentrations of 0.1–3.1 mol dm–3 and temperatures of 373–473 K. The experimental concentrations of the free insolated form of formaldehyde are given at the different temperatures and total concentrations of formaldehyde in methanol. The experimental dependence of the radiation-chemical yields of ethanediol on formaldehyde concentration in γ-radiolysis of methanol–formaldehyde solutions at 373–473 K is shown. At a formaldehyde concentration of 1.4 mol dm–3 and T = 473 K, the radiation-chemical yield of ethanediol is 139 molecules per 100 eV. The effective activation energy of ethanediol formation is 25 ± 3 kJ mol–1. The quasi-steady-state treatment of the reaction network suggested here led to a rate equation accounting for the non monotonic dependence of the ethanediol formation rate on the concentration of the free (unsolvated) form of dissolved formaldehyde. It is demonstrated that the peak in this dependence is due to the competition between methanol and CH2=O for reacting with the adduct radical HOCH2CH2O.

Keywords Methanol, Formaldehyde, Formation, Ethanediol, Radiation-Chemical Yield, Rate Equation.

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Task Allocation and Associated Protocol in E-RTA

Abstract Agents in E-RTA possess the organizational knowledge that only specifies the list of agents that currently belong to its organization. For joint problem solving agents need to identify team members and do not maintain explicit models of other agents' capabilities. Task allocation protocol’s aim is to formulate an automated method for agents to find a 'suitable' agent who is 'available' to perform collaborative task.

It is necessary to ensure that the activities of agents always remain coordinated and Joint intentions guide problem-solving activity and play a key role in guaranteeing coordination among agents within an organization in complex and dynamic environments. We also assume that agents possess any time solutions to goals. This is done so that an executing goal can be terminated before its normal completion to avoid priority conflicts of requests.

This paper described the task allocation & protocols used for our proposed framework E-RTA. This complete paper described introduction in section 1, task allocation in section 2 in detail. Section 3 deals with temporal conflicts resolution method among intentions. Section 4 describes the results of our experiment and finally conclusion in section 5.

Keywords E-RTA, Joint Problem, Task allocation protocol, problem-solving activity.

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Engineering Journal: December 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-12, December 2019 with AD Publications

The Use of Cyperus canus J. Presl as Raw Material for Handicrafts in Tabasco

Abstract This paper explores the use of Cañita by artisans of Nacajuca, Tabasco, Mexico to elaborate commercial crafts. This plant occurs naturally, but its demand by artisans has increased, which could lead to the gradual extinction of wild populations. The aim of this study is to provide introductory information on Cañita (C. canus): botanical description, agricultural production and artisanal use. The conclusion is that despite the economic and agronomic advantages of this plant, the system of artisanal production and the socio cultural environment of the families that work with it do not contribute to the sustainability of the production of Cañita, which is the limiting factor for the production processes related to commercial tourism and the capacity of artisans to make long-term decisions.

Keywords artisans, extinction, agricultural production, socio cultural.

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The influence of the environment factors and the surface treatment on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Type 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Abstract The aim of this work is to understand the combined effects of stress, temperature, humidity and chloride ion on the susceptibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of type 304 austenitic stainless steel. The occurrence of SCC was investigated using the as received (cold work), sensitized samples those are exposed to the environmental test chamber at 40oC and 70oC, respectively. The humidity from 40% to 70% RH with gradient of 10% was applied during the corrosion test lasted 720h. The results showed the environmental conditions where SCC crack can be occurred and where it can be avoided. The initiation and the propagating of SCC crack on the flat and U-bend specimens were grown up to correspond to the increasing of test temperature. Very high stress corrosion cracking can be observed in the period of low relative humidity (40%) and temperature (40oC).

Keywords— SCC, austenitic, cold work, sensitized, chloride ion.

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Engineering Journal: November 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-11, November 2019 with AD Publications

Material Recovery of the Glassy Slag Produced from Asbestos Containing Waste

AbstractThe present article deals with the option of high-temperature processing of asbestos-cement roof tiles in a plasma reactor. It describes the process of melting this type of waste in a plasma reactor which is aimed at obtaining the resulting product in the form of vitreous slag of the inert nature. The article also briefly comments on the potential recovery of the formed slag which may be used as the secondary material for further manufacture processes.

Keywordsasbestos, glassy slag, ceramic foam.

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The Analysis of Selected Characteristics of Secondary Heat Networks

AbstractA heat network is a pipeline system through which the heat-transferring medium is conveyed, in the required amount and condition, from a source to a heating appliance. The heat loss depends on a number of parameters, such as the temperature of the medium, temperature of the environment where the analysed heat network is located, and the thickness and quality of the installed insulation. The present article deals with the efficiency of the heat distribution system relative to the temperature in the supply pipeline and in the return pipeline in overhead and direct-buried distribution systems, as well as the effect of the heat loss on such efficiency.

Keywordsheat network, efficiency, heat loss, ambient temperature.

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The Prototype of Metal Hydride Hydrogen Compressor with Heat Pump

Abstract The metal hydride materials are characterized by a high pressure gradient as a function of temperature, which has been used in the construction of a compressor that compresses hydrogen by a chemical-thermal cycle. The present paper describes a prototype of a metal hydride compressor working using a heat pump that provides thermal management between metal hydride containers. The principle of the compressor is to use a suitable metal alloy that can absorb and desorbed hydrogen into its intermetallic structure. By heating the alloy, there is a significant increase in pressure, which makes it possible to compress hydrogen without directly contacting the moving parts, thereby increasing process safety.

Keywords hydrogen, metal hydride alloy, metal hydride compressor, heat pump.

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A Survey of Nitrogen Level Estimation in Plants using Image Processing

Abstract— Nutrients in plants are commonly associated with the Nitrogen Content present in the given plant at the given time. The evaluation of Nitrogen content is thus a pretty accurate measure of the health of the Plant in question. Traditional methods of Nitrogen Content estimation relied on either destructive and time-consuming methods which were extremely inefficient or on methods that required human eyesight to compare using a Colour Chart which had a really high probability of being incorrect as the colour on the chart itself may or may not be accurately printed. Thus, the use of Computer based Nitrogen Level estimation Techniques is sought.

This paper tells us about a few techniques used for Nitrogen Estimation and details some of the differences in the techniques whilst giving us a brief idea of the biggest drawbacks of each of the mentioned techniques.

Keywords survey, agriculture, colour detection, comparison, dselm, image processing, image recognition, MATLAB.

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Engineering Journal: October 2019

Engineering Journal: published its volume-5, Issue-9, September 2019 with AD Publications

Study of Non-Stationary Thermomechanical Processes in the Structure Elements of the Construction Taking into Accounting for the Local Surface Heat Exchanges

Abstract The aim of the work was to develop a methodology for taking into account the presence of local surface heat exchanges in rods of finite length, often taking place in studies of the non-stationary phenomenon of thermal conductivity. The proposed methodology was oriented to the subsequent creation of a computational algorithm and its implementation on a personal computer using the universal DELPHI programming tool. This allowed the authors to complete the initial stage of the research works, which will subsequently take into account the internal heat sources in the rods of finite length and constant cross-section in the study of non-stationary thermal conductivity, as well as to develop new methods, approaches and models associated with them.

Keywords finite length rod, internal heat sources, local surface heat transfer, non-stationary thermal conductivity, programming tools, thermomechanical processes.

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Contribution to the Determination of the Elasticity Modules of a Material (Borassus Aethiopum) based on an Experimental Method: Effort (Force)/Elongation or Moment/Degree ratio

Abstract The mechanical characterization of a material involves the determination of longitudinal elastic modulus, the transverse modulus and the fish coefficient. To Obtaining these data is subject to experimentation. To obtain these data, there is need to experimentation. Several conditions contribute to the realization to the carrying out of the tests.To achieve this, there are methods which make it possible to better know the materials in general and especially the building materials by working on very small samples. Machinery, sample deposits and working conditions are obstacles to research. A civil engineering CBR press enabled us, during the three-point bending test, to determine the modulus of longitudinal elasticity by increasing the press force and elongation. Based on the example of bending, the transverse module is obtained by the torsion test based on the torsion moment and the torsion angle.

The method is based on consideration of the Bending Effort/Elongation ratio or Moment/Torsion angle ratio. The experimental material is an object with its own morphology, the wandering wood. The difficulty of the work is related to the accuracy of all components of the sample. This method complements previous methods and puts into practice the indispensable dimensions of the strength of the materials. It shows the purpose pursued by an engineer in these experiments.

Keywords— Engineer, Characterizations, Essential quantities, Simple Technique, Rônier.

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The computer modeling of the physical mechanism of the 2D convective transport of hydrocarbons from the mantle wedge to the Earth's surface: a comparison of the Newtonian and non-Newtonian rheology cases

Abstract For the non-Newtonian mantle rheology case the 2D thermal viscous dissipation-driven thermal convection in the mantle wedge above the Apulian lithospheric microplate subducting under the Euro-Asian plate is modeled numerically. The effects of the 410 km and 660 km phase transitions are taken into account. Within the framework of the model constructed the horizontal extent of the 2D heat flux anomaly observed in the rear of the Dinarides mountain belt corresponds to subduction velocity of ~10 mm per year which is close to that observed with the help of geodetic means. In the case of non-Newtonian rheology the upwelling convective flow transporting heat to the Earth’s surface locates at the distance from the trench corresponding to the actually observed 2D heat flux anomaly, the velocity in the convective vortices being from ~10 mm per year to ~10 m per year for the water content in the mantle wedge from 0.3´10 –1 to 3´10 –1 weight percent respectively. The convection cell dimension is of the order of the horizontal scale of the heat flux anomaly observed in the Pannonia petroleum basin and Vardar zone. Upwelling mantle wedge convective flow is indicated to be able to provide the mantle wedge hydrocarbons transport to the Earth’s surface for the mantle wedge mantle content over 0.3´10– 1 weight percent.

Keywords Computer Modeling, Thermal Convection, Newtonian & Non-Newtonian Rheology Cases.

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Mechanical Characterization of two Amorphous Polymers in Traction-Compression Test using A Viscoelasticimeter

Abstract Using the viscoelasticimetric tests in traction and compression mode, the viscoelastic sizes E’, E" and tand were characterized according to the temperature and this, for amorphous polymer samples differentiated by their fluidity index. It is noted that the stiffness is intermediate size making it possible to characterize the conservative components E’ easily and the dissipative one E" of the module complexes E* like its temperature of glass (vitreous) transition from polymer trough the factor of loss tand. These sizes in comparison with the abundant data by the manufacturers make it possible to consolidate the mode of request retained:

  • The temperature of vitreous transition Tg obtained on the two samples from methylpolymethacrylate (PMMA) in modetraction compression is integrated in the interval of temperatures (110 to 135°C) advised by the manufacturers of this material.
  • The ranks of polycarbonate (PC) tested in the two modes had a constancy of behaviour with Tg quasi equivalent to150°C with a variation of 5°C.

Keywords amorphous polymer, viscoelacticimetry, temperature, vitreous transition.

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Engineering Journal September 2021

Effect of Processing Method of Kidney Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) on Carcass Quality, Organ Weight and Organoleptic Properties of Broiler A...