Friday 2 October 2020

Engineering Journal: September 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-9, September2020 with AD Publications

Autogenous Yb:YAG laser disk welding domain of AA6061-T4 aluminium alloy

Abstract The aerospace industry is developing lighter, stronger and more heat- and corrosion-resistant components to reduce manufacturing costs and fuel consumption. To achieve this goal, laser welding represents a real opportunity to replace the riveting assemblies developed in the 1920s. In this article, we present our research to obtain the weldability domain of AA6061 aluminium alloy by autogenous disk laser welding. A systematic study of the samples butt-welded by X-ray and optical microscopy allowed us to determine the defects and the dimensions of the weld beads according to the process parameters. The data analysis with the CORICO software made it possible to determine the regression models considering the welding parameters in order to avoid the appearance of defects such as melt pool collapse, lack of penetration or hot cracking. A range of weldability was defined for power values between 2000 to 2500 W, welding speeds below 4m/min and focal diameters below 170 microns.

Keywords— aluminium alloy, laser welding, weldability domain.

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Physics of Equilibrium and Non-equilibrium Deformation Processes in the Nickel Surface Layer

Abstract Based on the Hamilton’s principle, invariants are proposed to describe the processes of formation and evolution of the structure of the metal interface under friction. These invariants can be used, among other things, in the creation, evolution and destruction of nanomaterials.

Keywords— nano, submicro, micro, meso and macro levels of deformation, equilibrium and non-equilibrium deformation, invariants.

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Engineering Journal: August 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-8, August 2020 with AD Publications

In-Wheel Motor Transmission System in Electric Vehicle

Abstract Electric vehicle is the alternative, efficient and eco friendly in the future automobile industry. In today’s world due to depreciation of the fossil fuels rapidly, engineers have found the other mode of vehicle moving the car or a vehicle by the mode of electric motor. The end of the engines powered by fossil fuels and entering to the new era of electric automobile by 2075 almost 95% of the fossil fuel content and production from the earth will get over. There are electric vehicles like Tesla automobile and some other companies like Mahindra etc have started production of electric vehicles and the vehicle is powered by AC Induction motor, BLDC motor etc by using shafts and cv axle for transmission of power generated. Here this research paper is about the implementation of in-wheel electric motor, construction, mechanism and working of alternative design of 3 phase ac induction 4 pole motor with figures and tables.

Keywords— electric motor, efficiency, transmission system, transmission.

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Engineering Journal: July 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-7, July 2020 with AD Publications

Retrofitting of Soft Storey Building by using Different Bracing System due to Seismic Load

Abstract In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate an existing building located in seismic zone V using equivalent static analysis. Indian Standard IS-1893:2002 (Part-1) is followed for the equivalent static analysis procedure. Building is modeled in commercial software STAAD Pro. Seismic force demand for each individual member is calculated for the design base shear as required by IS-1893:2002. Corresponding member capacity is calculated as per Indian Standard IS456:2000. Deficient members are identified through demand-to-capacity ratio. A number of beams and column elements in the first floor of the present building are found to be deficient that needs retrofitting. A local retrofitting strategy is adopted to upgrade the capacity of the deficient members. This study shows that steel jacketing is an efficient way to retrofit RC members to improve flexure as well as shear capacity.

Keywords RETROFITT, Earthquake, Composite, Conventional, Frame, Steel, Reinforced Concrete, Structure, Multi-storey, SMRF, Framed structures, Maximum Axial Force, STAAD PRO.(V8i) series 4.

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A Review on Need of Adopting Renewable Energy in India

Abstract India became the world 3rd largest producer and 3rd largest consumer of electricity. The rapid increase in energy consumption in the present scenario and is moving fast towards the development of civilization.[1] Today we are dependent on fossil fuels to power our homes and to fuel our vehicles and mostly we are using the fossil fuels as a primarily heating medium. The huge consumption of fossil fuels has caused a severe damage to our environment and also these resources are limited and expensive but we are only seeing our convenience as we all know it very easy to use coal, oil & natural gas for meeting our requirements. To meet the crisis of energy in India it has been experienced to renewable sources like wind energy, geothermal energy, solar energy, tidal energy, bio-gas energy, etc. In this paper we have initiated to study about the renewable energy resources of the country. [4] In this research paper we have identified the utilization of renewable sources and their benefits to prevent our environment from the pollution created by the fossil fuels.

Keywords— Energy crisis, Fossil Fuels, Geothermal energy, Solar energy, Tidal energy, Wind energy.

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Engineering Journal: June 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-6, June 2020 with AD Publications

Use of Triple Bagging System and Biopesticides for the Optimization of Storage Methods of Corn Grains for an Application in Oil Industry

Abstract Corn is the second most cultivated cereal in Ivory Coast after rice. The grain germ represents an important source of quality fat, which could fill the deficit in fat both in populations and in industries. Unfortunately, grain production and the quality of fat are affected by storage methods that are often harmful to health. It is in this context that in the present study carried out in Ivory Coast. Surface response methodology (3-factor Central Composite Design) was conducted to monitor the effectiveness of triple bagging system and biopesticide (leaves of Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens) on the stability of some alteration parameters of the grains intended for use in oil mills. Thus, humidity, peroxide index and acidity were assessed during storage. The independent variables considered were the storage duration (1 to 18 months), the biopesticide / corn ratio (0 to 5%) and the combination of biopesticides (0 to 100% Lippia). Predictive regression equations were constructed for the estimation of each parameter studied (R2 > 0.70). An increase in grain moisture, peroxide index and acidity (P <0.01) was observed with the storage time. However, a threshold concentration of biopesticides has been shown to be effective for the stability of spoilage parameters. The optimization of the results made it possible to determine the ideal conditions for the conservation of the corn kernels. Thus, the addition of 2.5% of biopesticides (20% of Lippia multiflora and 80% Hyptis suaveolens) in a triple bagging system is effective for the stability of the alteration parameters for 18 months. Under these ideal conditions, the experimental values are respectively of the order of 12.30 ± 0.17%; 3.96 ± 0.14 meq O2 / kg and 3.18± 0.08% respectively for humidity, peroxide index and acidity. These values considered to guarantee quality stability are statistically (P> 0.05) equal to those predicted by the mathematical model.

Keywords Corn storage, triple bagging, biopesticides, lipid quality, surface methodology responses.

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Special Types of Heat Exchangers

Abstract The article describes the results of experimental research of a new type of heat exchangers in which the heat transfer surface consists of smooth polypropylene fibres with the outer fibre diameter of 0.5 mm and the total heat transfer surface area of 0.14 m2. The research output is the information on the value of the heat transfer coefficient, exchanger heat capacity and pressure loss. This type of heat exchangers is contemplated for applications in areas where high chemical resistance of the equipment is required, as well as a relatively low weight and price and excellent resistance to the formation of wall deposits.

Keywords— heat exchangers, polypropylene fibres, structure.

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Engineering Journal: May 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-5, May 2020 with AD Publications

Robust Gesture Recognition Based on Embedded System

Abstract To improve portability of current gesture recognition technology, this paper proposes a method of the design and implementation of gesture recognition based on embedded system by combining embedded platform with Open CV. Firstly, image denoising using the weighted mean filtering method, and the morphological open operation is used to obtain the complete contour, and the edge extraction is carried out by the improved Canny operator; Secondly, image segmentation using two-dimensional maximum interclass variance. Then analysis and processing of specifies the feature information of gestures images using Hu distance. Finally, the template matching method is used to recognize the gesture image. The experimental results show that the gesture recognition based on embedded system has strong portability, higher recognition rate and easy implementation.

Keywords Embedded, template matching, human-computer interaction, Hu distance.

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Experimental study on four rotor helicopter 10 m-range distance and position measurement method by using two searchlights for autonomous control and the evaluation

AbstractThis paper reports experimental result of a distance and position measurement method for autonomous movement control of four-rotor helicopters (drones) that uses two spotlights and comparing with a red marker using case, discuss the results of autonomous flight test evaluations. To conduct autonomous drone flights exceeding 10 m under unstable GPS signal situations, such as under bridges or inside tunnels during periodic maintenance inspections, correct self-positioning measurements are indispensable. This study proposes a simple method whereby autonomous drone movement control can be performed over distances exceeding 10 m by using two high-power 100 V alternating current spotlights set on the ground as infrared (IR) light sources. The spotlights are directed at the investigation target, such as the cracked area of a bridge, and the intense light of the two spotlights provides reference points that enable the drone to determine its correct position. In autonomous flight-testing in an enclosed corridor, our method provides capable of determining the drone’s position at distances up to 15 m with a standard deviation of 0.31 m. Our proposed method would be effective in situations where no skilled drone control operator is available and for flights requiring visual cue confirmations under adverse outdoor conditions.

KeywordsInfrared spotlights, Four-rotor helicopter, Long distance measurements, Bridge/tunnel investigations.

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Parametric Analysis of Interlaminar Toughness of Unidirectional Carbon Fiber and Woven Carbon Fabric Composites

AbstractThe present study focusses on the parametrical investigation of unidirectional and woven carbon fiber double cantilever beams subjected to mode I, in order to study its effects on their strength and failure. Different crack lengths as well as width and thickness of the specimens have been analyzed extensively. The maximum normal and shear stresses are found to decrease as the crack length increases for both types of composites. The crack length directly affects the strength of the specimens. A numerical model was developed using the Comsol Multiphysics to predict the failure of double cantilever beams. The crack initiation and progression in the specimens was predicted using the cohesive zone method (CZM) and the delamination at the interface.

Keywordsfracture toughness, uni-directional, woven fabric, crack propagation, double cantilever beam.

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Tilapia Powered Aquaponics to Optimize Land and Water Use for Safe Food Production from the Rooftop

AbstractTilapia powered vertical aquaponics system (TPVAS) is an effective way to increase crop production in a food desert city per unit rooftop area by extending crop cultivation into the vertical dimension to feed the ever-increasing population of the world and keep the city-pollution free and cooler. Experiments conducted over the years to assess the viability of tilapia powered lettuce, strawberry, water spinach and mint production in the media-based vertical aquaponics system at the rooftop and lab of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The wastewater of the tilapia tank irrigated to the 4 feet height and 3-4-inch diameter vertical plastic pipes holding 15 to 18 saplings in each pipe which passing through the coco dust, coco coir, water hyacinth root, and brick chips media then return into the fish tank again. Fish growth performances, nutrients availability, and their use assessed. The mean length and weight gain of tilapia were 2.95 (±0.83) to 11.77 (±2.49) cm and 32.71 (± 9.43) to 170.38 (±78.7) g. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) were 2.5, 2.35, 2.33 and 1.5 and survival rates were 96, 78, 85 and 98.33% for lettuce, strawberry, water spinach and mint based tilapia aquaponics systems. The fish and vegetable production was 30.64 to 135.20 and 12.47 to 123.25 MT/ha/90 to 120 days respectively. Among the four media, coco coir produced the highest crop than the others.Therefore, it is concluded that the TPVAS is suitable and capable of producing fish and vegetables at the rooftop keeping the rooftop cooler and greener than nearby traditional roof gardening buildings.

KeywordsFish well-being, Rooftop, Safe food, Tilapia, Vertical aquaponics.

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Analysis of Air Conditioning Schemes based on Evaporative Cooling of Air using Solar Energy

Abstract The article presents the calculation method based on the heat and humidity parameters of the units direct and indirect-evaporative cooling in air conditioning systems in buildings are analyzed various technical diagrams. On the basis of experimental and theoretical studies established the benefits of schemes based on indirect-evaporative cooling. The processes of heat and humidity of air treatment, demonstrate the benefits of solar installations with devices indirect evaporative-type compared to conventional solutions.

Keywords Climate, Air, Compressor, Rotating Heat Exchanger, Irrigation Chamber, Solar Energy, Solar Installation.

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Engineering Journal: April 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-4, April 2020 with AD Publications

Non-Linear Motion Analysis of Reciprocating Vibro separator

Abstract In this paper, dynamic motion behavior of reciprocating vibro separator model has developed and analyzed. Effective of 3 different elasticity of vibro-pad material has computed and nonlinear dynamic motions have investigated. Based on previous empirical data computational model has validated with elasticity value of 25MPa, vibro motor at 1000 rpm and vibro motor angle (α) 30ᵒ has resulted in minimum horizontal displacement and periodic motion of system. For the motion analysis Poincaré, Fast Fourier Transit (FFT) & Time data graphs have used. The computational model of reciprocating vibro separator has observed significant resembling with industrial case study.

Keywords Dynamic Motion analysis, Model validation, Material property.

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Automation Security System

Abstract Security systems has seen a rapid rise in its place in research and development, in the field of home automation and industries. This is a field where development occurs regularly yet still always leave some room for growth. In this paper, an endeavour has been made to develop advanced automation security system with ultrasonic range module, stepper motor and GSM module to detect theft. When a person comes within the range of the system, along with an alarm buzz and led indication, an alert message is sent using GSM module touser’s mobile. Use of stepper motor and ultrasonic module in system also provides an omni directional security of home detection. This system also very economical yet simple to implement. The system successfully developed, implemented and tested and that we found that its working is satisfactory. The abstract should summarize the content of the paper. Try to keep the abstract below 250 words. Do not make references nor display equations in the abstract. The journal will be printed from the same-sized copy prepared by you. Your manuscript should be printed on A4 paper (21.0 cm x 29.7 cm). It is imperative that the margins and style described below be adhered to carefully. This will enable us to keep uniformity in the final printed copies of the Journal. Please keep in mind that the manuscript you prepare will be photographed and printed as it is received. Readability of copy is of paramount importance.

Keywords ATmega-328 Microcontroller, Stepper Motor, Buzzer alarm, GSM SIM900.

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A Readiness Model towards Transformation a Second Generation University to an Entrepreneurial University

Abstract This paper proposes a readiness model for transformation a second-generation university to an entrepreneurial organization based on influential factors and the consequences of entrepreneurial activities on local economic development. Six factors and indicators are identified and modeled based on the tutorial entrepreneurship literature. The restrictions of each factor are defined by the readiness framework and the consequences of entrepreneurial activities on local economic development are analyzed by using the proposed model. The proposed conceptual model aids policymakers in completing a much-needed assessment of the impact of organizational policies, practices, and structures on the entrepreneurial activities and transformation from second-generation universities to third-generation organizations. The proposed readiness model leads to the development of organizational interventions that facilitate successful entrepreneurial activities. The quantitative indicators of different university types are demonstrated in this study. The quantitative validation of the integrated framework suggests that university heads and policymakers can encourage and develop academic entrepreneurship by using a comprehensive systems approach for the identification, protection, and commercialization of university intellectual property.

Keywords Entrepreneurial universities, readiness; local economic development model, quantitative indicators.

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Evidence of OH• radicals disinfecting indoor air and surfaces in a harmless for humans method

Abstract The development of human societies around the world has generated a very serious environmental damage that threatens human health and the survival of animals and plants due to a higher incidence of infectious diseases.

This awareness led to the designing of an advanced harmless environmental sanitation method for the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) in large air spaces and surfaces. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) based on hydroxyl radicals (OH) in sufficient concentrations perform biocidal functions on pathogenic microorganisms and degrade airborne organic compounds to mineral forms of harmless organic compounds.

It is a technology recognized as clean and safe and is generally carried out through solar radiation as a process initiator with photocatalyst material. The problem presented in the photocatalysis methods is its low speed, the generation of toxic degradation intermediates, deactivation of the material and the need for UV irradiation.

The increased airborne spread of pathogenic microorganisms has raised serious concerns about its threat to environmental security. However, there is no effective method to quickly eliminate these harmful microorganisms in a large air space. Compared to conventional disinfectants, OH radical-based oxidation processes have excellent advantages.

Keywords advanced oxidation process, disinfection, hydroxyls radicals (OH), infectious diseases, ozone, terpenes, VOC’s.

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A Novel Assistive System using National Instruments LabVIEW Graphical Programming

AbstractToday health monitoring system related research has been the priority for all as pre diagnosis of any health related issue can help to save lives of many people. It involved multidisciplinary fields of research which included use of electronic sensors, biomedical diagnosis, embedded system, artificial intelligence etc. In today’s busy world most people does not have time for proper medical checkup or does not have the economic support for the expenses related to it. In this paper we have proposed a novel assistive system called AHD (Automated health diagnosis) system which is cost effective, durable and easy to use. It will be very advantageous for elderly people in eliminating the excessive cost of diagnosis and unnecessary travelling to the hospital for whom regular health checkup is a priority aspect. This system will monitor patient health so that necessary medical support can be provided within appropriate time. AHD system involves uses of ECG (Electrocardiogram) signal, body vibration signal and the use of GSM technology. In case of abnormality this system will send text message to the doctor, hospital and the family members. We have used Ardunio Mega 2560 as a microcontroller, AD620 for ECG and LabVIEW as a visual programming language. This system will bridge the gap involved in the patient deteriorating health condition and health care entities.

Keywords Biomedical embedded system, ECG, AHD (Automated health diagnosis) system, Medical diagnosis, Signal Processing.

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Trapping & Harvesting Lightning Energy

Abstract Energy is available in the universe in different forms. For any work to be done, energy is required. The need and scarcity of energy made the mankind for the search of different forms of energy. For centuries many scientists are in search of energy and have found many forms of renewable and non-renewable source of energy which are being used till date but the problem arises here that the sources which are non renewable (e.g: fossil fuels) are getting over day by day and it cannot be replenished. At this rate if this usage continues then by 2075 it will completely get over. Fossil fuels are given a very huge importance as mankind is completely dependent on this source of energy as 99% of transportation and automation uses fossil fuels. Due to this completion of energy mankind has started search of another source of energy that is sufficient and that can replace fossil fuels. After lots of research and analysis it has been noticed that lightening is a very huge source of energy.

Keywords— Lightning Energy, Trapping and Harvesting lightning Energy, Source of Energy.

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Engineering Journal: March 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-2, February 2020 with AD Publications

Economical Design for Dairy Farm Structures

Abstract In this study a steel framed dairy farm structure designed by considering IS 800-2007. It has been observed that by following the code recommendations for the design of dairy farm structures, it becomes expensive, that an ordinary farmer can't afford it. The basic idea of the investigation is to make these structures more economic for the farmers so that they become affordable. It is proposed to take realistic approach viz-a-viz applicable codes in design of these structures to make them safe and economical. The analysis and design will be done using ETABS software. The factors such as structural capacity and cost involved will be focused in the study.

Keywords— Dairy Farm, Economic Design, Realistic Loads, Quantity Comparison.

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Calibration of Crop Coefficients and Evapotranspiration Rates in Semi-Arid and Sub-Humid Agro climates: Impact on Crop Water Requirement

Abstract: Crop water requirement, a key component for Irrigation planning and management depends on Actual Evapotranspiration rates. Variations in Evapotranspiration rates depends on the climatic conditions for a given soil and crop. The objective of this work is to determine the water consumptive use based on crop coefficients for Tomato in Semi-arid and Sub-humid agro climates. The Actual Evapotranspiration was quantified by Lysimeters. Sieve analysis of the soil indicated as sandy soil and has density of 1.859*10-3 Kg/cm3. Depending on density and the root depth of tomato crop, lysimeter of dimensions 52cm depth and 36cm diameter is used to measure actual evapotranspiration rate.

Regression analysis carried out for the actual evapotranspiraton rates, computed using empirical formula indicated that the FAO-56 PM method is well suited for both the regions having correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.92 for Semiarid and sub-humid regions respectively. Further, it was found that Thornthwaite equation being the next suited method has a correlation of 0.90 for semiarid and Hargreaves method the next suited method with correlation of about 0.90 for sub-humid. Crop coefficients used in all this potential Evapotranspiration methods were calibrated with lysimeter insitu measurements.

The crop coefficients vary depending on the different crop stages. The recalibrated crop coefficients for tomato crop are 0.78, 1.045, 1.95 and 1.54 for initial, development, mid and late respectively for Semi-arid Agro-climate. Similarly for Sub-Humid agro climate the crop coefficients were found to be 0.9, 0.98, 1.55 and 1.3 respectively.

Keywords: SemiArid and Sub Humid regions, Evapotranspiration rates, caliberated crop coefficients, Tomato crop.

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Heat Transfer and Unsaturated Flow Phenomena in Rigid Dual-Scale Porous Media

Abstract Composites are light weighted materials that can replace the metals in strength promisingly in future. The residual porosity of the composites alters the thermo-physical properties of the material to a maximum level. During the impregnation of fibre in matrix (injection), the presence of air voids changes the direction of the flow of resin. This also affects the material properties in terms of flexibility, durability but agitates the effective thermal conductivity (keff).The physics behind the effect of air void on the effective thermal conductivity cannot be captured in commercial software or experiments. The best way to solve this problem is by numerical codes using finite element approach, by dividing the whole macroscopic domain into numerous subdomains as possible. The divided subdomain should be periodic in nature with respect to the whole domain. If the heterogeneities are similar, dual scale approach is used and so on. If the heterogeneities are different and if they are of two types, triple scale approach is used. The contrast ratio and volume percentage of fiber is used as variables. The air void creates a giant leap for saturation in both, which in turn effect the effective thermal conductivity. Air void troubles the effective thermal conductivity mainly because of its insignificance in scalar values of thermal conductivity when it is compared to fiber or matrix mathematically.

Keywordscomposites, effective thermal conductivity, homogenization, impregnation, matrix, fibre, preform, contrast ratio, saturation, liquid composite moulding.

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Study of the Nickel Complex Formation with Citric Acid in A Mixture Alkyl Polyglycoside10 (APG10) Surfactant/Water System

Abstract The stability constants of complexes formed by metal cations Ni(II) and citric acid in water and in APG10 surfactant/water medium are determined by the pH titration method combined with using Hyss 2009 simulation software. Under experimental conditions, the Ni(II) complexes with citric acid ligand were determined consisting of [NiCit]-, [NiHCit], [NiCit2]4- and [NiHCit2]3-. The logβ values of the stability constants of the complex species are linearly dependent and decreases with increasing concentration of APG10. The influence of APG10 surfactant on the decrease of stability constants maybe explained by the interation of the surfactant micelles with the complex species. In 0.5% APG10/water solution, the decrease in stability constant value of Ni(II) - Citric complexes compared to these values in the aqueous environment are from 4.367 to 14.126 times.

Keywords— Stability constant, Complex, Citric acid, APG10 non-ionic surfactant.

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Engineering Journal September 2021

Effect of Processing Method of Kidney Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) on Carcass Quality, Organ Weight and Organoleptic Properties of Broiler A...