Wednesday, 31 March 2021

Engineering Journal: March 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-3, March 2021 with AD Publications

Energy Savings in Renewable Integrated Distribution Network and Impact of Storage Devices

Abstract Energy loss reduction is a significant issue for Renewable energy planning in the Distribution system. The high penetration of wind and solar became the primary task for the optimal size of energy storage to support the power mismatch. In the present work, energy savings have been obtained in a renewable integrated distribution system. The impact of the energy storage device has also been evaluated. The main contribution of this paper is:

  • Optimal location of DGs and battery are obtained by solving single and multi-objective functions.
  • Determination of DG and battery size for loss savings.
  • Impact of battery energy storage device on loss profile and total cost of the system.

The simulation results of the test system have been compared with other existing results.

Keywords— Radial distribution system, Battery energy storage device, Energy Loss minimisation, optimal sizing and siting, Renewable Energy sources.

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Metal-Containing Nanocomposites on the Basis of Isotactic Polypropylene and Butadiene-Nitrile Rubber

Abstract One and two-step methods for the synthesis of saccharin-6-carboxylic acid triglyceride were studied. The reesterification reactions of 2-hydroxypropyl-1,3-bis-ethersulfoimide of this acid and glycerol with some aliphatic saccharin-6-carboxylic acid esters were carried out. The resulting products are characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. It was found that when using a two-step method, the end product is obtained with the highest yield (85%). The influence of additions of nanofillers (NF) containing nanoparticles of the copper oxide, stabilized by polymer matrix of maleinized polyethylene of high pressure (MPE), obtained by mechano-chemical method on peculiarities of structure and properties of metal-containing nanocomposites on the basis of isotactic polypropylene (PP) and butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNR) by methods of X-ray phase (RPhA) and differential-thermal analyses (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been investigated. It has been revealed an improvement of the strength, deformation and rheological indices and also the thermal-oxidative stability of the obtained nanocomposites, which has been apparently connected with the synergetic effect of the interaction of the zinc-containing nanoparticles with maleic groups of MPE. It has been shown that the nanocomposites on the basis of PP/BNR/HF can be processed both by pressing method and by methods of casting under pressure and extrusion, which expands the sphere of its application.

Keywords butadiene-nitrile rubber, DTA, isotactic polypropylene, metal-containing nanocomposites, nanoparticles of zinc oxide, RPhA, SEM – analyses, thermal properties.

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Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Crude Glycerol by Purple Non-Sulfur Photo Fermentative Bacteria, Rhodobacter Meghalophilus

Abstract As the world is progressing faster with new technological innovations, the need and demand for energy is also constantly expanding. In the light of conventionally available fossil fuel reserves being exhausted extensively that has left a very deep scar on environment, the urge for alternative environment friendly energy source is the need for energy sustenance. Hydrogen gas is distinct for its high calorific value, clean fuel characteristic and suitability for wide applications. Chemical method likes steam reforming, coal gasification are established technologies available for industrial hydrogen needs but are high in terms of cost and energy input. Biological methods are promising routes for hydrogen gas generation as they can be cost effective and use a variety of organic materials as substrates. The current study is focused on generation of hydrogen gas using Rhodobacter meghalophilus, a mesophilic, and purple non sulfur photo fermentative bacteria. Crude glycerol, byproduct from biodiesel plants is used as carbon substrate because of its rich organic content. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of process parameters viz. volume of crude glycerol, pH and light intensity on generation of hydrogen gas. Crude glycerol in the media was varied from 5 – 15% (v/v), pH between 5.8 – 8.3 and the light intensity at 500, 1000 and 2000 Lx respectively. At 15% (v/v) of crude glycerol, pH of 7.8 and 1000 Lx, the volume of hydrogen gas obtained was 490 ml/L with the substrate to hydrogen gas conversion rate as 0.012 mol/ mol of crude glycerol with light conversion efficiency of 1.16%.

Keywords— Bio hydrogen, Clean energy, Crude glycerol, Photo fermentation, Rhodobacter meghalophilus.

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Engineering Journal: February 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-2, February 2021 with AD Publications

Direct analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS of 8 purified fractions from ethanolic extracts of Talipariti elatum’s flowers in Martinica

Abstract From ethanolic extracts of the flowers of Talipariti elatum (Sw.) eigth different samples were isolated, purified and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS to determine the chemical constituents that they content. Each sample was separated and reinjected to get the most possible information about the chemical compounds that they posses. After an exhaustive analysis 8 different chemical components were tentatively identified according to their MS and literature data. Two compounds until remain unknown.

Keywords— Talipariti elatum, ethanolic extract, flowers, UHPLC-MS, chemical components.

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Performance Evaluation of Bentonite Muds Formulated using Cassava Starch Treated with Preservatives

Abstract Extensive works have been done on the subject matter of local sourcing of drilling fluid additives to reduce our importation burdens especially in this era of dwindling oil fortunes. This local sourcing will bolster industrialization and reduce unemployment in a vast economy like Nigeria. The results of the previous studies have shown promising potentials which are in tandem with our local content mandate of the government. Cassava starch has been identified as one of these additives and our ranking as the world largest producer of cassava remains instructive. Currently, all the starch used in the oil and gas industry is imported. The major constraint to the use of cassava starch is their extreme susceptibility to post-harvest degradation. This work, therefore, is an attempt to address this problem of stability by the application of appropriate preservatives without prejudice to the rheological properties of the mud. In carrying out this study at temperatures of 80, 120, 150 and 1900F, three cassava starch cultivars TMS 92/0057, TMS 98/0581 and TMS 96/1632 and four common preservatives in the food industry; the salts of benzoate, propionate, sorbate and metabisulphite were used in the bentonite mud formulations. The result showed that out of the sixty-one mud formulations, only five of them adequately met the API rheological properties threshold. These five muds exhibited properties that compare favourably to the imported starch sample. This stabilized product holds much promise as a substitute to the imported starch for use in water-based drilling mud formulations for the Nigerian oil industry.

Keywords— Cassava starch, Drilling fluids, Rheology, Preservatives.

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Tuesday, 30 March 2021

Engineering Journal: January 2021

Engineering Journal: published its volume-7, Issue-1, January 2021 with AD Publications

Non-typical designs of Polypropylene Capillary Heat Exchangers

Abstract— The present article describes a heat exchanger with transparent (smooth) fibres with an atypical body shape and an atypical arrangement of polypropylene capillaries inside. The exchanger cross-section was of a square shape. This type of exchanger was subjected to the investigation of the impact of the fibre arrangement on the overall heat transfer coefficient and behaviour of fibres during the experiment. The exchanger was examined in the counter flow arrangement. The exchanger with 1,400 transparent fibres with the outer diameter of 0.275 mm was examined at the secondary fluid flow rate of 150 l·h-1 to identify the overall heat transfer coefficient k which amounted to 520 W·m-2·K-1. When compared to an exchanger with identical parameters of fibres placed inside a cylindrical exchanger body, a decrease in the overall heat transfer coefficient represented 14%. At the flow rate of 200 l·h-1, the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient identified experimentally was 632 W∙m-2·K-1. When compared to cylindrical exchanger with comparable fibre parameters, the value was 33% lower.

Keywords— Heat exchangers, polypropylene fibres, typical designs Polypropylene Capillary.

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Voltage Control in Distribution System with Reactive Power Dispatch

Abstract Due to large resistance and lower reactance of lines, the voltage control and power loss became a crucial issue. The flat voltage profile, is therefore expected to distribution system at each node, minimum power loss, the maximum cost of saving and maximum efficiency. In this context, to find the size and location of compensating devices for the reactive power and voltage control devices became the essential need. In this paper, the multi-objective optimisation problem is solved for the sizing and location of reactive power compensating devices in the distribution system. The main contributions of the proposed work are

  • To address the hybrid algorithm to determine the location and size of Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM).
  • The power loss and voltage deviation are minimised.
  • The impact of D-STATCOM with minimum voltage growth is analysed.

The results are verified, tabulated and compared with other methods. The IEEE-33 bus test system has been taken for the analysis.

Keywords— Power loss minimisation, voltage deviation, D-STATCOM.

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Engineering Journal September 2021

Effect of Processing Method of Kidney Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) on Carcass Quality, Organ Weight and Organoleptic Properties of Broiler A...